RBSE Solutions for Class 11 English Literature Literary Terms

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Rajasthan Board RBSE Solutions for Class 11 English Literature Literary Terms

Literary Terms

Question 1.
What is an Elegy? Explain it with examples.
Elegy-An elegy is a formal and sustained poem of lament for the death of a particular person. For example, Tennyson’s In Memoriam on the death of Arthur Hallam. Sometimes, the term is used for meditative poems, such as Gray’s “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.”

शोकगीत-एक शोकगीत एक औपचारिक दु:ख पर निरन्तर जारी रहने वाली कविता है जो कि किसी व्यक्ति विशेष की मृत्यु पर लिखी जाती है। टेनीसन की In Memoriam नामक कविता उसके मित्र आर्थर हेलम की मौत पर लिखी गई थी। कभी-कभी, यह शब्द गम्भीर विचार करने वाली कविताओं के लिए प्रयोग में लाया जाता है जैसे ग्रे की कविता “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard”.

The most quoted lines in the poem written by Tennyson entitled as—’In Memoriam’, written on friend’s death, are-

I hold it true, whatever befall;
I feel it when I sorrow most;
‘Tis better to have loved and lost
Than never to have loved at all.

Thomas Gray’s ‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’, the opening lines of this elegy are-

The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,
The lowing herd wind slowly o’er the lea,
The ploughmen homeward plod his weary way,
And leaves the world to darkness and to me.

Question 2.
What is “Epic’? Explain it with examples.
The epic-epic or heroic poem is a long narrative poem on a great and serious subject, composed in an elevated style, and centred on a heroic or quasi-divine figure on whose actions depend on the fate of a tribe, a nation or the human race. Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey and Milton’s Paradise Lost are notable examples of epic.

महाकाव्य-महाकाव्य का नायकवाद से पूर्ण कविता एक लम्बी कथ्यात्मक कविता किसी गम्भीर या बड़े विषय पर लिखी जाती है। इसकी रचना उच्च तरीके से की जाती है और यह नायक पर या अर्द्ध-दैवीय प्रतिमाओं पर लिखी जिनके कार्य किसी जाति, राष्ट्र या मानव जाति के भाग्य पर आधारित होते हैं। होमर का Iliad and Odyssey (इलियड और ओडिसी) और मिल्टन का Paradise Lost (पैराडाइज लॉस्ट) महाकाव्य के श्रेष्ठ उदाहरण हैं।

John Milton’s ‘Paradise Lost’ is the best example of it. The opening lines of the poem are-

Of man’s first disobedience, and the fruit
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste.
Brought death into the world, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater man.”

Homer’s Iliad begins with the poet’s famous evocation of the muse-

Anger be now your song, immortal one,
Achilles’anger, doomed and ruinous
that caused the Achaeans loss on bitter loss
and Crowded brave souls into the under gloom.

Like the “Iliad’, the ‘Odyssey’ begins with an evocation of the muse-

“Sing in me, muse, and through me tell the story
of that man skilled in all ways of contending,
the wanderer, harried for years on end,
after he plundered the stronghold.”

Question 3.
What is a ‘Sonnet’? Explain it with examples.
Sonnet-A sonnet is a lyric poem which consists of fourteen iambic pentameter lines linked by an intricate rhyme scheme. The rhyme, in English, usually follows one of two · main patterns :
(1) The Italian or Petrarchan sonnet is divided into two parts: an octave (8 lines) rhyming abba a b b a and a sestet (6 lines), rhyming cdecde or some variant such as c dc cd c. This form was used by Milton, Wordsworth, and D.G. Rossetti.

(2) The English or the Shakespearean sonnet is divided into three quatrains and a concluding couplet: a babcdc de fefgg.

सोनेट (14 पंक्तियों वाली)-सोनेट कविता होती है जिसमें चौदह लाइनें होती हैं जो लघु गुरु चरण (आइम्बिक पेंटामीटर) से जुड़ी होती है जिसकी एक कठिन ध्वनि की योजना होती है। अंग्रेजी में ध्वनियाँ प्रायः दो मुख्य तरीकों पर आधारित होती हैं :

(1) इटालियन या पट्रार्कन 14 पंक्तियों वाली कविता को दो भागों में बाँटा गया है : 8 पंक्तियों वाली ऑक्टेव जिसकी ध्वनियाँ ab b a ab b a और छ: पंक्तियों वाली सेस्टेट जिसकी ध्वनियाँ cde c de या कुछ भिन्नता जैसे cd cc d c होती है। इस स्वरूप का प्रयोग मिल्टन, वर्ड्सवर्थ और डी.जी. रोसेटी ने किया था।

(2) अंग्रेजी या शेक्सपीयर की 14 पंक्तियों वाली (सोनेट) कविता के तीन मुख्य भाग होते हैं और इसमें संकलित दोहा होता है; इसकी ध्वनियाँ होती हैं-a b a bc d c defef g g.

The Italian or Petrarchan sonnet as used by John Milton is in this example where the rhyming is a biba a b b a. The lines are from Canzone.

O Nightingale, that on yon bloomy spray (a)
Warbläst at even, when all the woods are still, (b)
Thou with fresh hope, the lover’s heart dost fill, (b)
While the jolly hours lead on propitious May (a)

One more example from Milton’s “On His Blindness”-

When I consider how my light is spent (a)
Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide (b)
And that one talent which is death to hide (b)
Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent (a)

This example illustrates the form, taken from, “Let me not to the Marriage of True Minds”-

Let me not to the marriage of True Minds (a)
Admit impediments, love is not love (b)
Which alters when it alteration finds (b)
Or bends with the remover to remove (a)

Question 4.
What is an ‘Ode’? Give examples to explain it.
Ode-An ode is a long lyric poem, serious in a subject, elevated in style, and elaborate in its stanzaic, structure. For example, Wordsworth’s “Ode: Intimations of Immortality.”

सम्बोध गीत (ओड)-हिन्दी में ओड को सम्बोध गीत कहते हैं। यह एक लम्बा गीत-काव्य होता है। जिसका गम्भीर विषय, उच्च तरीका और पद्य ढाँचा विस्तृत होता है। उदाहरण के लिए वर्ड्सवर्थ का ‘Ode: Intimations of Immorality’ है।

Ode: Intimations of Immortality composed by William Wordsworth-
“There was a time when meadow, grove, and stream,
The earth, and every common sight,
To me did seem Apparell’d in celestial light.”

Question 5.
What is ‘Lyric’? Give its examples.
Lyric-Greek writers identified the lyric as a song rendered to the accompaniment of a lyre, a musical instrument. The term is now used for any short, non-narrative poem presenting a single speaker who expresses a state of mind or a process of thought and feeling.

गीतिकाव्य-यूनानी लेखकों ने गीतिकाव्य को एक गीत के रूप में पहचाना है जो वीणा एक संगीत वाद्य यन्त्र के साथ प्रस्तुत किया जाता था। यह शब्द अब किसी भी प्रकार छोटी, अकथनीय गेय कविता के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है जो अकेले वक्ता द्वारा प्रस्तुत की जाती है जो मन को दशा या भावनाओं और विचारों की प्रक्रिया को व्यक्त करता है।

P.B. Shelley is a great lyric poet. The lines from “Ode to the West Wind’ are-
‘O wind! Lift me as a wave, a leaf, a cloud!
I fall upon the thorns of life I bleed.’

W.B. Yeats is also a lyric poet. His best poem, “When you are old’ is an example of lyric poetry-
“When you are old and grey and full of sleep
And nodding by the fire, take down this book.”

Question 6.
What is ‘Ballad’? Explain it with appropriate examples.
Ballad—The popular ballad (known also as the folk ballad or traditional ballad) is defined as a song, transmitted orally, which tells a story.

गाथागीत-प्रसिद्ध गाथागीत (इसे स्थानीय गाथागीत या प्रथागत गाथागीत के नाम से भी जाना जाता है) इसे गीत, मौखिक रूप से दिया जाता है जो एक कहानी कहता है के रूप में परिभाषित किया जाता है।

John Keats’ “La Belle Dame Sans Marie: A Ballad”, the lines from this ballad are–
“O what can ail thee, knight, at arms,
Alone and palely loitering?
The sedge has withered from the lake,
And no birds sing.”

Question 7.
What is “Satire’? Give examples in support of your answer.
Satire-Satire is the literary art of diminishing a subject by making it ridiculous – and evoking attitudes of amusement, contempt, indignation, or scorn towards it.

प्रहसन, व्यंग्य काव्य-व्यंग्य काव्य एक साहित्य कला है जो कि घटे हुए विषय पर आधारित होती है इसे मजाकिया और आनन्द, घृणा, तिरस्कार या उपहास उत्पन्न करने वाले दृष्टिकोण से उठाया जाता है।

Alexander Pope’s famous satire “Rape of the Lock” is the best example. The opening lines are-
“What dire offence from amorous causes springs,
What mighty contests rise from trivial things.”

Jonathan Swift’s “Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift”, where he speaks about himself-
“Yet malice never was his aim;
He lashed the vice, but spared the name”.

Question 8.
What do you know about ‘Fiction?? Give at least two examples in support of your answer?
Fiction-Broadly speaking, fiction is any narrative which is reigned or invented rather than historically or factually true. The term “fiction” is applied primarily to prose narratives (the novel and the short story) and is sometimes used simply as a synonym for the novel.

कथा साहित्य-कथा साहित्य, यदि विस्तृत रूप में कहा जाए तो कोई भी कथा जो कि बनाई जाती है या बनाने का प्रक्रम ऐतिहासिक या सत्य तथ्यों पर किया जाता है।’कथा साहित्य’ शब्द मुख्यतः गद्य-काव्य के लिए। लागू होता है (उपन्यास या लघुकथा) और कभी-कभी इसे उपन्यास के समानार्थी के रूप में प्रयोग किया जाता

A famous example of fiction is James Joyce’s novel, “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man”.
For a second example, let’s take the novel of Yann Martel, “Life of a Pi”.

Question 9.
What is ‘Melodrama’? Explain the term with examples.
Melodrama-“Melos” is a Greek term for a song, and the term “melodrama” was originally applied to all musical plays, including opera. Now, melodrama can be said a drama which is full of exciting events and exaggerated characters. The adjective melodramatic is applied to any literary work or episode that relies on improbable events and sensational action.

अति नाटकीय-‘मेलोज’ एक यूनानी शब्द है जो गीत के लिए होता है और अति नाटकीय शब्द मूलतः सभी संगीत नाटकों, ओपेरा सहित पर प्रयोग में लाया जाता है। अब अतिनाटकीय को एक नाटक कहा जा सकता है जो । उत्तेजक घटनाओं और अतिशयोक्तिपूर्ण पात्रों से परिपूर्ण होता है। अतिनाटकीय शब्द विशेषण के लिए लागू होता है जो किसी भी साहित्यिक कार्य या एपिसोड के लिए असम्भव घटनाओं और संवेदनशील कार्यों पर निर्भर करता है।

Noel Coward’s heart-breaking drama, “Still Life, Brief Encounter,” tells the story of two people seemed destined to stay unhappy.
Christopher Morley’s novel, “Kitty Foyle” is also an example of melodrama, which is adapted into a film.

Question 10.
What do you know about ‘Monologue’? Why is it used in a play by a playwright?
Monologue-The term monologue is derived from the Greek term meaning “one word’ or ‘one speech’, and refers to an extended speech by one person. It is used in the form of a dramatic monologue, where the speaker is imagined to be talking to a silent listener (for example, in Browning’s “My Last Duchess”) or as a soliloquy, where the speaker speaks his thoughts aloud to himself, presented as an extended part of a text or a play (for example, Hamlet’s soliloquy “To be or not to be….” in Shakespeare’s play Hamlet).

एकालाप-एकालाप शब्द यूनानी शब्द से लिया गया है जिसका अर्थ ‘एक शब्द’ या ‘एक वाक्य होता है। और यह एक व्यक्ति द्वारा विस्तृत भाषण को व्यक्त करता है। इसका प्रयोग नाटकीय एकालाप में किया जाता है, जहाँ वक्ता यह कल्पना करता है कि वह एक शान्त श्रोता से बात कर रहा है (उदाहरण के लिए, ब्राउनिंग की “My Last Duchess” या एक स्वगत वाक्य जहाँ वक्ता अपने स्वयं के विचारों को जोर से बोलता है, जो कि एक विस्तृत भाग या नाटक के रूप में प्रस्तुत की जा सकती है। (उदाहरण के लिए, हेमलेट का स्वगत वाक्य, “To be or not to be….” शेक्सपीयर के नाटक हेमलेट में है।)

Robert Browning’s poem “My Last Duchess” is a monologue. The lines are-
“That’s my last Duchess painted on the wall,
Looking as if she were alive.”
Shakespeare’s drama, “Hamlet” the famous soliloquy is-
“To be or not to be that is the question”.

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