RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Text book Questions

RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The starting point of corruption is considered as a charity provided by industrial and business houses. They give charity to:
(a) Religious institutions
(b) Political parties
(c) Workers Unions
(d) Employees Unions
(b) Political parties

Question 2.
Which is correct regarding terrorism?
(a) This is a peaceful movement
(b) It is based on non-violence
(c) It’s a positive concept
(d) It’s a destructive tendency
(d) It’s a destructive tendency

Question 3.
At present, what is the danger for world peace?
(a) Gandhism
(b) Marxism
(c) Fabianism
(d) Terrorism
(d) Terrorism

Question 4.
Which one is not an aim of Islamic terrorism?
(a) To establish Muslim countries in the world.
(b) To oppose violently the west and non-Muslim countries.
(c) To establish peace in the world
(d) To introduce Islamic rules and principles in the world.
(c) To establish peace in the world

Question 5.
Which one of the following countries gives shelter to terrorism?
(a) Philippines
(b) Indonesia
(c) Pakistan
(d) Cambodia
(c) Pakistan

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Question 6.
In which country was LTTE active?
(a) India
(b) Malaysia
(c) Sri Lanka
(d) China
(c) Sri Lanka

Question 7.
Which one of the following states is highly affected by terrorism?
(a) Arunachal Pradesh
(b) Jammu & Kashmir
(c) Sikkim
(d) Goa
(b) Jammu & Kashmir

Question 8.
Why was demonetization introduced?
(a) To check the excess flow of currency.
(b) To dig out black money
(c) To check the circulation of tom and dirty notes.
(d) It’s a regular process.
(b) To dig out black money

RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What kind of tendency is terrorism basically?
Basically, it is a destructive tendency.

Question 2.
Write two reasons of terrorism?
Two reasons :

  1. Misuse of parties and electoral politics.
  2. Growing dissatisfaction among youths.

Question 3.
With which tendency, terrorism has close relation?
Terrorism has deep relation with Islamic terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir and active Naxalism in other states.

Question 4.
On which basis terrorism gets support?
Terrorism is supported on the basis of foreign instigation of youths in creating a sense of fanaticism and to oppose the people from getting in national mainstream.

Question 5.
In which Indian state is terrorism highly active?
It is highly active in Jammu and Kashmir.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Question 6.
Which scholar said that ‘Violence is the beginning, result and end of terrorism”?
David Fromkin.

Question 7.
Name five Indian states highly affected by terrorism.
Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Tripura and Manipur are highly affected states.

Question 8.
Name two causes of political criminalisation.

  1. Materialistic Tendency
  2. Lack of national feeling.

Question 9.
What in the law to check corruption?
Anti-corruption law.

Question 10.
What is the basic source of corruption?
The basic source is charity given to the political parties by industrial houses, businessmen and
industrial institutions.

RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write down the psychological elements of terrorism.
Elements :
Terrorism is a psychological attack. Its target is to get psychological results. The psychological elements of terrorism can be clarified through following points

  1. Intimidation :
    It means to make people afraid. It is an active psychological element. Through it, terrorist groups try to spread panic among people. Through it, they produce terror among the people.
  2. Instigating Tendency :
    Terrorist groups incite the people’s feelings, religious fanaticism, and in doing so they create a gap in people.
  3. Promotion by Acts :
    In whole society, terrorist groups carry out violent activities to promote terrorism such as – causing riots in the name of religion, killing thousands of people by bomb blasts, etc. Through these ways, the terrorists spread terror in the society.

Question 2.
What are the main targets of terrorist action?
Targets :
Mainly, there are three targets behind terrorist action.

  1. Work ethic goal:
    On this level to make spread fear among people, threatening, creating terror is included. Through this medium the terrorist groups try to influence and alienate the public in the society.
  2. Strategic goal:
    Under this goal terrorist activity is performed. In other way, execution of conspiracy is done.
  3. Guided goal:
    Through this medium, the terrorist groups want to take advantage from government for this. They want to draw public attention so that they may get to achieve their goal.

Question 3.
What bad results occur from high media coverage of a terrorist incident? Discuss.
Bad results :
Following are the bad results of high media coverage of a terrorist incident.

  1. Helpful in making terrorists group :
    Media coverage inspires many terrorists to make their group; consequently in many states, they help terrorist activities.
  2. Knowledge of new information :
    Due to media coverage they get knowledge of new preventive tactics and they execute terrorist activities by using new strategies.
  3. Opposite effect :
    Media coverage draws opposite effect on the working style of the government.
  4. To gain publicity :
    Because of religious and communal reasons, terrorits may get cheap publicity.

Question 4.
Write a short note on the forms of terrorism in India?
Forms of terrorism in India :
Terrorism in India can be clarified through following point

  1. In India, all the terrorist groups for achieving the goal, use different techniques to create fear and violence.
  2. In India, terrorism in Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir comes in the category of separatism.
  3. In India, the terrorists to change public religion are using worst and merciless way in the name of religion.
  4. Besides, local terrorist organisations in India, trained foreign terrorists are also active who are supported by Pakistan.
  5. The subversive acts in India are done by criminals, smugglers and other foreign agencies.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Question 5.
What do you understand by Islamic terrorism?
Meaning of Islamic terrorism :
Islamic terrorism is a distorted form of Islam which has become more powerful in last 20 or 30 years. Islamic terrorists do not have feeling of dedication towards a particular group but to a particular community. Commitment towards Islam is the main tendency. Self sacrifice, inhumanity, forcible money collection and ruthless murder have become the characteristic of Islamic terrorism. This form of Islam murders more Muslims than people of other communities. At this time, the cause of Muslim deaths is not American drones but Islamic attack. Muslims are torturing Muslims. In jammu and Kashmir state, Islamic terrorism comes in the category of religious fundamentalism and separatism.

Question 6.
What is corruption?
Meaning :
The practice in which any person or any organisation, which provides profit improperly neglecting the law and in exchange gets wealth and facilities by harming public interests, is known as corruption.

Most of the corruption cases are related to purchasing, grant, construction, debt, appointment and transfer, etc. When a person disobeys the set rules of judiciary system and adopts bad practices for the supply of his selfish need, he is called ‘corrupted’. Through this process, the business families and industrial institutions want to derive inappropriate benefits and hence, the corruption starts.

Question 7.
Describe the meaning of political criminalisation.
Meaning :
This is a tendency in which the people of criminal background directly or indirectly affect the political process. To enter in politics, and to get power, to remain in power, politicians take the help of criminals, this is called political criminalisation.

In India, the tendency to take up politics as a profitable business leads to political criminalization. Criminalisation of Indian politics is a phenomenon that has made Indian democracy directionless. In the election, the evil influence of muscle and arsenal has corrupted the entire democratic system. As a result of this trend, election politics has been criminalised.

Question 8.
What steps can be taken to end political criminalisation?
Steps taken to end political criminalisation: Following steps can be taken to end political criminalisation:

  1. To commence effective online election.
  2. Election commission should be formed transparently.
  3. Criminal elements should be banned from fighting elections by quick court decision.
  4. Those political parties should be fined who give tickets to criminals.
  5. A legal system should be maintained by constitution to check the working methods of political parties.
  6. Efforts should be made to develop internal democracy and answerability in political parties.
  7. By making necessary amendment in law, the people of criminal background should be
    banned from fighting elections.
  8. Special arrangement should be done through fast-track courts to solve cases against ‘ criminals activities in politics.

RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a note on the problem of terrorism?
Problem of Terrorism :
The word terrorism has originated from Latin word ‘Terror’ which means great fear or panic. Commonly, any method to create any type of fear can be called terrorism. Terrorism is usually supported by religious, ethnic, regional and social grounds. In modem era fear is the chief basis of so called totalitarian rule. The fundamental goal of terrorism is to grab power by removing the existing or law- related rule. Terrorism is the most dangerous psychological warfare tool of the world. After the end of the cold war, terrorism has become a big threat to the world. Terrorism is evolving new trends in which there is an apprehension of the use of atomic or biological weapons and chemical weapons and a danger of mass destruction.

It has been a strategy of the terrorists to create fear in common public in a planned way, profit should be gained from the government and demands should be raised before government. In the history of India, terror has been used again and again to get power. In the two decades of last century in India, Sikh terrorism, Islamic terrorism of Jammu and Kashmir, terrorism in the different states of north east, etc can be included in the definition of terrorism.

In Jammu and Kashmir of India, besides local terrorist groups, other trained and foreign terrorists of Pakistan are also active, but most of the terrorists groups of 20th and 21st century have failed in their motives. In Punjab in India, terrorists remained a failure. In Kashmir, these groups get support from local public due to religious factor, but these groups are forced to kneel before security forces. ISIS, Boko Haram, Taliban and other Muslim terrorist groups remained a failure politically. Today, terrorism has become a challenge to world peace and security. This problem will not come to an end until all the world’s nations unite and face it. All sovereign nations should take strong steps to deal with this problem.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Question 2.
How is Indian politics influenced by criminalisation? Discuss.
Indian Politics is influenced by criminalisation through many ways which can be described as below :

  1. This tendency increases self interest. In politics the leaders, for their interests, overlook national interests. They try to get their work done in wrong ways.
  2. Some people get help from criminals to enter in politics so that they may avail the power.
  3. Some leaders in Indian politics get help from criminals to misuse power and to remain in power.
  4. The leaders take up politics as a profitable business. This tendency also influences criminilisation of politics.
  5. Some leaders in Indian politics take the help of the process of criminalisation so that they may have hegemony over people or a territory.
  6. Indian politics today is becoming party politics due to process of criminalisation.

If we analyse the 16th Lok Sabha, we will find that 34% members have criminal background and against whom criminal cases are registered. This increasing number is not a good sign for our democracy. In Indian politics, the increasing number of these criminals shows an alarming trend of criminalisation of politics. National level political parties are using criminals to win election. Criminals are also joining parties and winning elections and becoming ministers and making the country’s policy. Thus, Indian politics is being influenced by criminalisation.

Question 3.
“Corruption is like termite which destroys the roots of a nation”. Suggest the perspective and ways to prevent it
When any person or organisation provides profit improperly, neglecting the law, and in exchange gets wealth and facilities by harming public interests. This is called corruption. This is true that corruption is like a termite in economy of a country which slowly destroys the roots of a nation. In Indian society, corruption has spread so widely in such a way that now it has become an acceptable practice. Regardless of the fact that it has a greater impact on the middle class, no one is left untouched from high class to lower class. Due to corruption, nation is unable to move on the path of development quickly. Many resources of the country are wasted by corruption. If we talk about the causes of corruption, the main cause is the materialistic attitude of our society.

In society the person gets respects and value who has unlimited money. The people of society do not pay attention that from where the wealth comes. Cultured values and moral institutions are losing their significance. Now there is only a singular aim: to get much power and money. No one pays attention on the sources of these things.

The unholy connection between businessmen and leaders is increasing corruption. In election, leaders demand monetary help from big businessmen. And in exchange the businessmen try to get profit. This cycle encourages corruption continually. The results of corruption appear very dangerous. Economic imbalance is increasing in the society, black money is being accumulated. Due to this, economy of the country becomes paralysed and unemployment is increasing. This corruption at high level makes the employees at lower level worthless. Thus, the corruption is making the foundations of the nation hollow.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Measures to check corruption :
Corruption can be checked through following ways:

  1. To establish a powerful Lokpal institution to take action against corrupt public servants and politicians.
  2. Inspecting and curbing of corruption in banks, and in PSUs.
  3. To investigate immediately after complaint of corruption against any public servant and to seize his property if found guilty.
  4. Providing the information to common folk about government policies, reactions and activities.
  5. To punish corrupt person quickly by legal process.
  6. The charity which the political parties get should be scrutinised.
  7. Black money should be brought out through demonetisation.

Question 4.
Reviewing the current scenerio of political criminalisation in India, describe its causes and prevention measures.
Current scenario of political criminalisation in India :
In India the tendency to take up politics as useful business gives birth to political criminalisation. There is a great possibility of criminalisation in party politics because in it, the way to enjoy power opens through election. At present in Indian politics, increasing number of criminals indicates the level of criminalisation in all political parties where the selection of the candidates is done through a non-democratic way. All the parties, instead of people of good character, give tickets to the people who, have power, wealth and a greater possibility to win.

Cause of Political Criminalisation :

  1. Lack of national feeling.
  2. Delay in judicial process increases this problem.
  3. Mixture of wealth and power in politics.
  4. Lack of honest and impartial leadership.
  5. Ineffective implementation of law.
  6. Close nexus among police, politicians and administrative officers.
  7. Materialistic tendency, in other words, greed for luxury and facilities.
  8. High level of poverty, unemployment.
  9. Acceptance of leaders, having criminal background, by people.
  10. Drawbacks in electoral system.

Prevention Measures :

  1. To make election commission transparent.
  2. To introduce provisions like NOTA, so that people of criminal background may not win the election.
  3. Law should be made rigid and should be executed in an effective way.
  4. Not to select the person in election process who has criminal background.
  5. Special arrangement of fast-track court.
  6. To manage online election effectively.
  7. To fine and punish political parties who give tickets to criminals.
  8. To remove poverty, illiteracy and unemployment in a planned way.
  9. Not to accept the leaders of criminal background.
  10. To remove the shortcomings of electoral system.
  11. To remove the drawback in quality and ability of the government.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Other Important Questions

RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
One of the countries influenced by terrorism :
(a) China
(b) USA
(c) India
(d) Bhutan
(c) India

Question 2.
The word “terror” belongs to the language :
(a) Greek
(b) Latin
(c) Spanish
(d) Portuegese
(b) Latin

Question 3.
Aim of the use of terror :
(a) To create fear
(b) To maintain peace
(c) To establish justice
(d) All of these
(a) To create fear

Question 4.
Terrorism gets support on:
(a) Religious basis
(b) Caste basis
(c) Racial basis
(d) All of these
(d) All of these

Question 5.
Main aim of terrorism is:
(a) To establish terror
(b) To establish peace
(c) To establish social justice
(d) None of these
(a) To establish terror

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Question 6.
Which one is a major challenge to national unity :
(a) Regionalism
(b) Lingualism
(c) Communalism
(d) Terrorism
(d) Terrorism

RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What causes greater loss to world peace?

Question 2.
On what basis is terrorism alive in present world?
On religious and caste basis.

Question 3.
What is the most serious problem of the world?
Islamic terrorism.

Question 4.
What is terrorism?
When a person or a group for fulfillment of his unfair demands uses violence on an extensive level and tries to achieve their objectives in a negative way, it is called terrorism.

Question 5.
After which war the terrorism has become a great problem?
After the end of cold war, terrorism has become a complicated problem.

Question 6.
In modern era which war was surpassed by terrorism?
Guerilla war.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Question 7.
After the incident of 9/11 which country attacked Iraq and Afghanistan by declaring it an action against terrorism?

Question 8.
Name any two terrorist organisations.

  1. Taliban,
  2. Al Qaida

Question 9.
Name two characteristics of terrorism .
Two characteristics :

  1. To murder ruthlessly
  2. To get money forcefully.

Question 10.
In the year 2014, in which country did the terrorists kill 132 children in a school?

Question 11.
Name two Indian states influenced by terrorism and Naxalism?

  1. Jammu and Kashmir,
  2. Assam

Question 12.
Name any two goals of terrorist act?

  1. To spread fear among common people,
  2. To put pressure on the government.

Question 13.
Name any two psychological elements of terrorism?

  1. To incite violence
  2. To create strife

Question 14.
What are the intentions behind terrorist activity?

  1. To attract media through violence,
  2. To create an, atmosphere full of fear.

Question 15.
Write down two negative aspects of excessive media coverage of terrorist activities?

  1. Adverse effect on the efficiency of government machinary.
  2. To encourage formation of new terrorist groups.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Question 16.
Which scholar said that “Terrorism declined on world level. Stage is covered with blood and the character is dead.”
Former Soviet Union scholar Yuri Triffonav.

Question 17.
Who said that terrorists want to see and hear a lot of people die?
Brenajin Kins.

Question 18.
What reformative steps have been taken in the electoral process to reduce corruption in elections?

  1. Use of EVM machine,
  2. Videography of sensitive booths,
  3. Selection of impartial election observers.

Question 19.
What is the function of Anti-Corruption Bureau’s Officer?
Soon after getting complaint against any employee or officer, quick action be taken and red-handed arrest be made and punishment be meted out.

Question 20.
Which system is introduced to check corruption?
Lokpal System and auditing.

Question 21.
Write down two harmful results of corruption.

  1. Able and honest persons do not get proper opportunity.
  2. Economic imbalance increases in society and the gap been poor and rich becomes wider.

Question 22.
Write down any two measures to check corruption?

  1. The corrupt person should be punished by fast court
  2. The charity given to political parties should be scrutinised.

Question 23.
What was the main aim of the decision of demonitisation on November 8, 2016?

  1. To unearth black money.
  2. To check corruption .
  3. To make black money ineffective.
  4. To strengthen the economy.

Question 24.
Which decision of Indian economy is known as the movement to dean black money?
Demonetisation of November 8, 2016.

Question 25.
How did demonetisation help in controlling terrorist activities in India?
Terrorist were active in the each comer of India with the help of back money. Due to demonetisation, their money went out of circulation. They found it hard to run their activities.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the meaning of terrorism.
Meaning of terrorism: The word terrorism has originated from Latin word ‘Terror’ which means to make people tremble. When a person or a group for the fulfillment of their unfair demands, uses violence and tries to put pressure in a negative way on a large scale, it is called terrorism. Terrorism usually gets support on the basis of religion, caste and race. Modem terrorists use weapons to oppose legal governments of a country and to spread fear in society. It is a tendency in which anti-social elements do not care in committing heinous crimes. To achieve political aims, doing robbery and murder of common people, is called terrorism.

Thus, it is dear that terrorism is :

  1. Against state and society.
  2. Illegal.
  3. Adversely affects not only opposite groups but also its own community.
  4. Violent activities done by them are not justified.
  5. It victimises all the people of society.

Question 2.
Describe the chief characteristics of terrorism.
Following are the characteristics :

  1. It negates all norms of an organised society.
  2. They have political aims.
  3. It is illegal.
  4. Due to terrorism, the spirit of helplessness arises.
  5. Terrorism ends the sense of reason and human values.
  6. It creates the feeling of conflict and isolation.
  7. Violence in this is mindless and arbitrary, because the selection of victims is random and indiscriminate.
  8. It is an irregular technique of harassment and cruel persecution resulting in loss of life.

Question 3.
Throw light on the aims of terrorism.
Following are the aims:

  1. To get public support.
  2. To destroy internal stability and obstruct development.
  3. To demoralise army and psychological power of the government.
  4. To encourage common criminals towards terrorism.
  5. To spread violent movement.
  6. To pressurise government to show reaction or no reaction.

Question 4.
Describe the working style of terrorism?
Working style: Following techniques are adopted by terrorists to achieve their goals.

  1. To kill innocent people.
  2. To destroy public property by violent meAnswer:
  3. To launch attacks on police and armed forces.
  4. To launch attacks on a particular community.
  5. To spread hatred.

Besides above mentioned facts, following activities are also done by terrorists :

  1. Violence against a particular group or particular class.
  2. Kidnap or murder of an important person and to put unfair demand for releasing that person.
  3. Hijack of aeroplanes and robbery, etc.
  4. Isolating youth from mainstream by producing feeling of orthodoxy and fundamentalism.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Question 5.
Write a short note on fanaticism and terrorism?
Fanaticism and terrorism :
The tendency to regard terrorism as a religious ideology has long been a subject of controversy. This a complicated question whether terrorism is connected to a particular religion or not. This is also not true that the followers of a particular religion are indulging in terrorism. The analysis of terrorism indulged in by people of a particular religion in some countries is a serious subject which has emerged as a powerful tendency in last 25-30 years.

The terrorist affiliation towards a particular community is a negative tendency which is harmful for a healthy democratic society. Self sacrifice, in humanity, blackmailing, forcible money extortion and ruthless murders have become their characteristic. Terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir comes in a separate class. The 2014 massacre of 132 school children in Pakistan is a particularly dreadful face of terrorism.

Question 6.
At present, terrorism is a serious challenge for democracy”. As a democracy supporter, suggest two measures to eradicate it?
At present terrorism a serious challenge, and to eradicate it two measures can be suggested:

  • Preparation of common agreement on national issues :
    Terrorism cannot be removed by using force. It can be removed by knowing its principal cause and the weak feeling of brotherhood among different classes and communities will have to be strengthened. With it, there is a need to keep national issues away from party politics and need to make general agreement, which will boost unity.
  • Modernisation of police and security forces :
    Indian police and security forces are fighting against terrorists with old weapons even today, while the terrorists are using modem weapons. In such cases old weapons are proving useless. Thus to face terrorism, police and armed forces should be equipped with modem weapons.

Question 7.
Write the characteristics of political criminalisation.
Characteristics :
Following are the characteristics:

  1. People with criminal background contesting elections.
  2. Misuse of government system.
  3. To woo voters on the bases of wealth and power.
  4. Stopping voters from casting votes by force.
  5. Candidates who have criminal background, get positions in government.
  6. Booth capturing and bogus voting through violence.
  7. Removing names from voters list.

Question 8.
Write the consequences of corruption.
Consequences :
Following are the consequences.

  1. The level of public works is poor and many works remain on paper only.
  2. Compromising the natural rights of people has an adverse effect on quality of life.
  3. Due to corruption, able and honest persons do not get proper opportunity.
  4. Economic imbalance flourishes in the society. The gap between rich and poor increases.
  5. Unemployment increases.
  6. Black money increases and economy of the country is paralysed.
  7. Corruption on high level makes subordinates worthless.
  8. Common people’s faith in government decreases and dissatisfaction increases on public interest issues.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Question 9.
Suggest five measures to stop corruption.
Measures to stop corruption:

  1. Anonymous deal prohibition act 1988 should be implemented with immediate effect.
  2. Property acquired through wrong methods by corrupt public servants should be seized under legal process.
  3. The person found guilty should be subjected to severe penalties by quick judicial process.
  4. Public servants of questionable conduct should not be posted in offices of public dealing.
  5. Government decisions should be less secretive. Most of the cases should be kept transparent.

Question 10.
What impact did demonetization have on corruption in society?
Impact of demonetization on society :
Following are the impacts

  1. Due to demonetization of currency by Narendra Modi, fake currency, found in different spheres of national economy, became useless.
  2. This stopped the use of black money in elections.
  3. Demonetization had negative effect on white-collars-crime and criminals and on their trade.
  4. This stopped illegal transactions of cash.
  5. This strengthened national economy.
  6. The unaccounted wealth of such persons was made useless, who encourage terrorist activities.

RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
While explaining the meaning of terrorism, describe the reasons for its origination.
Meaning of terrorism :
The word terrorism is originated from Latin word ‘Terror’ which means to make someone to tremble. When a person or a group for the fulfilment of their unfair demands uses violence and tries to pressurise the government in a negative way on a large scale, it is called terrorism. Terrorism usually gets support on the bases of religion, caste and race. Terrorists use modem weapons against nation and society. It is a tendency in which such elements do not care committing heinous crimes against humanity.

Causes of terrorism :
Following causes are responsible for terrorism.

  • Exploitation and tendencies of injustice :
    Both exploitation and injustice are responsible for it. Many land reform laws were passed by state government. But the position of landless people could not be improved. Racial violence in Bihar and Naxalite terrorism is a main reason.
  • Illegal supply of weapons :
    Terrorists keep modem illegal weapons and also supply them to their affiliated groups. There is no strict ban on illegal weapons. Many multinational companies manufacture weapons. These companies remain in contact with Taliban, Al Qaida and a dozen more terrorist groups.
  • Foreign help to terrorists :
    Today, many countries are giving shelter to terrorists. They train them and give them financial support. It is done so as to create disturbance in other countries. For example: Pakistan is providing all sorts of help to terrorists in Kashmir.
  • Corruption :
    Corruption is widespread everywhere in the world. Today, officers of high rank compromise their morals. They surrender to the greed of money.
  • Delay injustice :
    To contain terrorism, a greater coordination among executive body, judiciary body and legislative body is a must. The legislative body should make strict laws. Executing body should implement laws strictly and the judiciary should not delay to punish those who disobey the laws. It is necessary to enforce the law strongly. For a terrorist, life-imprisonment and death sentence should be the punishment.
  • Lack of balanced development in economic areas :
    Economic differences should be eradicated in different territorial regions of India. Maharashtra is prosperous in comparison with other states but Vidharbh in spite of being in Maharashtra, is economically backward. This gives birth to terrorism.
  • Party politics :
    For the votes, the political parties do not care while resorting to unfair means. In politics, big leaders give shelter to criminals to avail the political position. Many times, the political parties for their self interest coorperate with the terrorist organisations.
  • Dissatisfaction among youths :
    In present era, unemployment is a serious problem. The number of educated unemployed is very high. An uneducated person can do any kind of work but an educated person hesitates in doing so, and hates doing physical labour. Poverty is said to be the mother of crime, and a dying person can do anything. When this dissatisfaction pervades among the youths, they start indulging in illegal activities. Later on, such youths become terrorists.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Question 2.
What do you mean by corruption? What are its causes? Write measures to eradicate corruption.
Meaning of corruption :
A conduct which is immoral and unfair from any angle is called corruption. Corruption has a wide meaning. When a person or an organization provides profit to a person or an organization without caring for law, and in exchange, gets wealth and facilities by harming public interests, it is corruption.

According to anti-corruption committee of 1962 :
Corruption is a flagrant and inappropriate use of power and effect attached to a particular situation available in a public life for selfish reasons.

Causes of corruption: Following are the causes-

  • Change in Social values :
    Today’s era is materialistic and everyone wants money. No one cares from where it comes. The rich have respect in society. Today cultural and social values are disappearing. People have exclusive aim of acquiring wealth and position.
  • Wide area of politics :
    Due to population growth, the area of politics has becomes much wider. Needs of people have increased. The sphere and extent of rules and laws has become wide. People have no time. They want the work to be done quickly. For this, they are ready to offer bribes. Everyone wants justice, but justice is given to rich only. Common people do not get justice. In such situation corruption rises.
  • Connection of businessman and politicians :
    Generally, there are connections between businessmen and politicians. In election, the politician demands financial help from the businessmen. In exchange, the businessmen try to get advantage. This cycle encourages corruption.
  • Lack of the laws controlling corruption :
    In India, these is no special department to end corruption. Honest employees and honest officers are not allowed to work. They are transferred. They are terminated by fake allegations. No strong steps are taken by government to control corruption. The office of Lokpal and Lokayukta is not very effective.
  • Providing public posts to party supporters :
    When any party comes to power, it gives posts to the people of its favour. Today’s politics breeds nepotism and racism because once politicians come to power, they forget whether morality is the part of their life or not. Immoral feeling encourages corruption.
  • Erroneous Electoral system :
    The electoral system of today’s era is dirty. In political election, the victorious candidates should present their income sources. The amount of money spent during election should be accounted for. If this does not happen, corruption increases.
  • Other causes of corruption :
    Decline of character and morality, illiteracy, unemployment, expansion of collection instinct, poverty, lack of administrative knowledge, unequal opportunity of development, etc become the causes of corruption.

Measures to Eradicate Corruption :
Following are the measures-

  1. Anonymous deal prohibition act, 1988 should be implemented immediately.
  2. Property acquired by public servants by illegal means should be seized under legal process.
  3. There is a need to punish the guilty by fast judicial process.
  4. The people of doubtful character should not be appointed to public posts.
  5. The government decisions should be less confidential, most of the cases should be transparent.
  6. Donations given to political parties, should be scrutinised.
  7. Citizens should have knowledge about government decisions and activities.
  8. Black money should be brought out by demonetisation.
  9. The decision taken by higher level should be known to subordinate level.

Question 3.
Describe the measures to end terrorism.
They following are the measures to end terrorism :

  • Making common agreement on national problems :
    To fight terrorism, attempt should be made on political level. The requirement is that in view of public interest and interest of party and interest of the country, right at the initial level of the problem, its solution should be found.
  • Arrangement of quick punishment for criminals :
    To control crime, quick punishment should be given to criminals so that faith may be created in public and fear may be created in the mind of the criminals.
  • Modernisation of police and security forces :
    Police and security forces should be made modem. All administrative systems should be improved, Today Mafia, Smugglers, and all types of criminals are in the outfit of terrorism. By making the administrative body strong Mafia, Smugglers and other criminal elements should be kept separate from terrorism.
  • Better cooperation between government and public :
    To control terrorism, it is necessary to have wider cooperation between government and public. Without public coperation, it is not possible to control terrorism. So it is in this direction that the government and the public have to work together.
  • Arrangement of powerful law :
    Arrangement of powerful law should be made so that the making of weapons is to be done in public sector. No weapons should be made in private sector.
  • Use of effective intelligence inputs :
    Intelligence inputs should be used to collect information about terrorists, their working style, sources of financial help and weapons.
  • Scientific training to soldiers :
    The soldiers should be trained scientifically to face terrorists.
  • Strong security measures :
    Arrangement of regular security should be done at important and vulnerable places.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

Question 4.
Describe the effects of corruption on society.
Effects of corruption on society:

  • Blocking the way of development :
    Due to corruption, country’s economic development is poralysed, consequendy, negative effects are seen on the economic growth of the country.
  • Rise of violence :
    The problem of corruption has created violence and disturbance in the society because the corrupted person has power to buy the person who makes the law.
  • Growth of black money :
    By corruption the corrupt persons collect money through unfair means, and this increases black money. Due to growth of black money, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.
  • Indiscipline of administration :
    Corruption first strikes the administrative departments because in all departments selfish people are found indulging in corrupt practices.
  • Rise of other problems :
    Because of corruption, division is seen on the bases of casteism, communalism and lingualism, which causes highly corrupted persons to incite common people and give priority to their self interests instead of the nation’s.

Other effects :

  1. Due to corruption, man’s morality and character declines.
  2. Nepotism develops in society.
  3. This problem has made common people’s life difficult.
  4. It has decreased common people’s faith in administrative machinery.
  5. It has made the government weak on central and state levels.
  6. It has increased adultration in eatables and medicines
  7. It has increased unemployment.
  8. It has increased economic imbalance in the society.
  9. Adverse effect is seen on the natural rights of the poor people.

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption

RBSE Solutions for Class 12 Political Science