RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 18 The Revolt of 1857

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 18 The Revolt of 1857 are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science. Here we have given RBSE Rajasthan Board Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 18 The Revolt of 1857.

Rajasthan Board Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 18 The Revolt of 1857

Board RBSE
Class 8
Subject Social Science
Chapter Chapter 18
Chapter Name The Revolt of 1857
Number of Questions Solved 16
Category RBSE Solutions

Rajasthan Board Class 8 Social Science Textbook Questions Solved

Question 1.
Which date was decided to commence the Revolution of 1857?
(a) 8 April
(b) 29 March
(c) 31 May
(d) 9 May

Question 2.
Who led the Revolution in Kota?
(a) Jaidayal
(b) Laxmi Bai
(c) Kushal Singh
(d) Kunwar Singh
1. (c)
2. (c)

Question 3.
Where did the revolt of 1857 start in Rajasthan?
At Nasirabad.

Question 4.
Which British officer was killed in Kota?
Major Burton.

Question 5.
Name the poets who wrote the songs on the result of 1857?
Bankidas of Jodhpur, Sureyman Mission of Bundi and Aasda Jawanji, Barhath Durgadutt, Aarda Jadooram, Aasiya Budhji, Gopaldan datiwadiya.

Question 6.
Who was the first revolutionaiy martyr in the war of 1857?
Mangal Pandey was the first martyr.

Question 7.
Write a brief note on the prominent happenings of the revolutions held in Auva?
Thakur Kushal Singh of Auwa (Pali) in Rajasthan was not happy with the British and the Maharaja of Jodhpur. On his call the feudals of Aasopa, Aalniyawas and Gular reached Auwa. He got assistance from the feudals of Khejrala (Marwar) and Salumbar, Roopnagar, Laksaani of Mewar. On getting information, Maharaja Thakur Kushal Singh despatched his state army to Auwa to fight against the rebel forces. Kushal Singh forces gave a heavy defeat to the Jodhpur forces at Bithoda on September 8, 1857. On getting this news A.G.G George Lawrence himself accompanied his forces to Auwa, but he too was defeated on September 18, 1857. Monk Mason, the political agent of Jodhpur was killed by the rebels.

His head was hung on the gate of the Auwa fort. At the same time the revolutionary forces of Jodhpur marched towards Delhi. Army lod by Holmes attacked Auwa in January, 1858. Thakur Kushal Singh’s took rescue with feudal of Salumber. The British gave bribe to the guard of the fort to keep the gates open and took hold of the fort. The Auwa public was meted out inhuman treatment. In 1860 Kushal Singh surrendered to the British at Neemuch. The case was filed against him but he was freed of charges later.

Question 8.
Write a brief introduction of Doongji-Jawaharji.
Doongji and Jawahar (Chacha – Bhatija) were well known army personnel in the east Sikar region before the war of Independence, 1857. They fought tooth and nail against the Jodhpur and the Bikaner British army. Their sacrifices made them the subjects of the songs and thus became immortal figures.

Question 9.
Describe the reasons of the revolt of 1857.
Main causes of the revolution of 1857 are:
1. Political causes:
(a) The Anti Indian British policies: Robert Clive played a diplomatic role and the trading company i.e. East India company was converted to a political institution. Wellesley and Hastings adopted unfair means to expand their empire. Later on Dalhousie framed a new policy for the expansion of his empire He merged the states of the Indian rulers who had no successor with the British empire. Dalhousie banned the policy of adoption according to which the rulers having no, successor could adopt his successor to the kingdom. It was known as Doctrine of lapse. This policy of Dalhousie affected many Indian states as Sambalpur, Jaitapur, Satara, Nagpur, Bithoor and Jhansi.

(b) Anti expansion policy towards the native rulers: Theoretically, the Mughal emperor was still the Badshah of India but was insulted. The coins were inscribed with the name of the king of England rather than that of the Mughal emperor. Similarly the Maratha Peshwa was deprived of his empire and instead was given pension. Later on his sons and Pesha Nanasaheb’s pension too was withdrawn. This policy of the British annoyed the Indian masses.

(c) Expansionist policy of the British: Through their treaties and alliances with the Indian Princes, the British emperors had assured them to follow the policy of non-intervention, in their (personal or internal) matters, but they, through their political agents, continued intervention, and later captured some states as Avadh under the pretext of administrative disorder.

(d) The feudal class autocrats: This class was annoyed with the British. The feudals collected tax from the people and gave to the king. Hence the feudals were accorded respect in the royal court. But after the subsidiary alliances the rulers were no longer dependent on the feudals and their powers were curtailed. The feudals blamed the British for this, for example Rawat Kesari Singh, the feudal of the war blamed the British for Maharan’s misbehaviour. Thakur Ajit Singh of Jodhpur was not happy with the political agent. Jhuntharam (Diwan) in Jaipur, on insistence by the British deprived Jagirdars of their hereditary rights. The feudals of Auwa, Aasop, Gular and Aalniyawas were not happy with the ruler. During the period of East India Company the rulers and the feudals lost their freedom to take independent decisions.

2. Social and Religious causes:
1. The British intervened in the Indian’s lives in the name of social reforms and often insulted them.The Indian customs and traditions were mocked and the Indians were not appointed for the high posts.

2. Government allowed freedom to Christian to preach and propagate Christianity and the Christian missionaries started converting the weaker sections to Christianity. The prisoners in the prisons were forced to accept Christianity. Those who accepted Christianity their punishment was remitted and they were given more facilities in comparison to others. The converts were posted in higher ranks. At the same time the Hindu gods and goddesses and their ways of worship were looked down upon. Thus the Indians became annoyed and were compelled to revolt.

3. Economic Causes: Prior to the company rule, India was predominantly an agricultural and industrial country. She was the main centre of the world trade and was known as the ‘Golden bird’ because of her economic prosperity. The British, after coming into power degraded India’s economy.
1. East Bengal prior to the company rule, was a prosperous province. The British policy of loot, compelled the people to live a life of hunger and misery. They charged very heavy land revenue to the farmers, compelling them to leave farming and other old professions.

2. The British taxed Indian clothes heavily with the intention to create market in India for their own goods and the artisans were illtreated to the extent they that had to leave their family profession.

3. In Rajasthan too the British imposed heavy duty and controlled all the economic resources. They etablished their full control over the trade in opium and salt. After reaching pacts with all the Indian (native) states, the British introduced Octroi, which annoyed the people. In order to establish their hold over the production of
opium in Hadauti, the British imposed taxes on the opium in Hadauti heavier than those in Bengali opium. Consequently smuggling was encouraged and there were food crises. The British earned a good profit from the salt trade in the whole of Rajputana. Many other industries of Rajputana were ruined.

4. Military Causes: The British army had the Avadh army in a large number. The Avadh military personnel were deeply shocked when Avadh was merged with the British empire. The British imposed many restrictions on their original ways of dining, dressing up etc. They felt highly insulted, especially when they were forced to go to foreign countries against their will. The Indian forces got less salary, and had to pay themselves, for their uniforms. Their free postal correspondence was banned. At the top of all they were given cartridges greased with the cow and pig-fat to open with their teeth. All these were enough causes to annoy the Indian forces.

Question 10.
Describe the prominent happenings of the revolt of 1857.
Main events of 1857 War of Independence
1. Revolution dated for 31st May, 1857 started on 29th March at the Barackpore Cantonment when the sepoys refused to break open the Enfield rifles cartridges with their bite as they were greased with the beef and pork fat. In the meantime Mangal Pandey shot dead the two British Officers. He was hanged to death on 8th April. On 9th May the sepoys at Merrut were arrested for refusing to break open the cartridges. Their fellow rebels got them freed, killed many officers, and then marched toward Delhi. On reaching Delhi they declared Bahadur Shah, the emperor of Delhi on 11th May.

2. Revolution took its wings and spread like fire. It was led by Nanasaheb and Tantia Tope in Kanpur, in Avadh by Begum Hazrat Mahal, in Jhansi by Rani Laxmi Bhai, in Bihar by Babu Kunwar Singh, in Assam by Diwan Maniram and Kanpareshwar Singh and in Orissa by Surender Shahi and Ujjawal Singh.

3. The then Governor General of India, Lord Canning got actively involved in suppressing the revolution. He called armies from Madras, Bombay, Burma and Sri Lanka and sought help from the Sikh fauz of Punjab and the Gorkha army of Nepal.
The army commander, General Neel got liberated Benaras and Allahabad, from the rebels. Nana Saheb’s forces were defeated in Kanpur. The British, finally, capured Delhi and arrested Bahadur Shah, sent him to the Rangoon prison, and his two sons were mercilessly shot to death.

4. Tantia Tope and Laxmi Bai fought tooth and nail against the British army. A few disloyal sepoys opened the gates of Jhansi fort but she escaped from there and reached Kalapi where she was joined by Tantia Tope. Both invaded Gwalior.
The British forces seized Gwalior, Rani in an attempt to flee from there, was captured by the enemy army and became martyr while fighting in the battle field. Tantia Tope too fell in the hands of the British and was hanged to death.
Thus the brave Indian heroes-Mangal Pandey, Tantia Tope and Rani Laxmi Bai became martyrs of the first war of Independence, 1857.

Question 11.
What were the results of 1857 revolution?
Consequences of the Revolution of 1857:
Though the 1857 revolution was a failure it had its far reaching as well as some of the immediate consequences.
The immediate consequences were:

  • The native rulers who had cooperated whole heartedly with the British, were restored the Right to adoption.
  • India’s control was passed on directly to the British Crown from the hands of the East India Company.
  • Queen Victoria, in her declaration, assured the Indian princes to continue their status quo.
  • The Zamindars had played an anti British role during the revolution. Therefore the British weakened the feudals.

They were made to pay in cash rather than kind (services). Their forces were dismissed and they were denied the judicial powers. Their rights in the Zagir regions were minimised and they were degraded. They were deprived of their privileges with an intention to eliminate the role of feudals in Administration. The English educated, the experienced and the loyal personnel were inducted in Bureaucracy. Consequently the loyal English educated middle class was evolved.

Far Reaching Consequences:
1. The British expanded the railways and road systems keeping in mind their military and trade interests.

2. The rulers were made to learn English so as to enable them to adopt the British ways and continue to show their loyality to the British Crown and the British Civilization.

3. The future British policies also had the impact of this revolution. Lord Dufferin during his period helped to found the Congress Party with an idea to give the Indians a platform to express their views and thus, to avoid future chances of revolution of the type of 1857. Whatever the consequences but no one can deny that the revolution of 1857 weakened the roots of the British administration and the Dominion administration. It was the first great and the bigger challenge in the world to the European empire. Though it was a failure, it helped to arouse the people to nationalism and their spirit of patriotism was strengthened. The future independence movements got an impetus from this revolution and it continued till India became free in 1947.

RBSE Solutions for Class 8 Additional Questions Solved

I. Multiple Choice Questions
Question 1.
The first war of independence was fought in-
(a) 1858
(b) 1856
(c) 1857
(d) 1854

Question 2.
Nana Sahib lead the revolt of 1857 in-
(a) Kanpur
(b) Satara
(c) Jhansi
(d) Auwa
1. (c)
2. (a)

II. Write True or False against each questions
1. Indian sepoys were happy to serve in distant land overseas. (True/Fals
2. Nana Saheb became the leader of revolt of 1857 in Delhi. (True/False)
3. Social reforms introduced by the British were readily welcomed by the people in India. (True/False)
4. Rani Laxi Bai led the revolt to control India. (True/False)
1. (F)
2. (F)
3. (F)
4. (F)

III. Fill in the Blanks
1. …………. introduced the doctrine of lapse.
2. The revolt of 1857 was also India’s of ……………… independence.
1. Lord Dalhousie
2. First war of Independence

IV. Match the following

Column A Column B
(1) Nana Sahib (a) The first hero of 1857.
(2) Tantia Tope (b) was informed that his heirs would not be allowed to stay in Royal Red Fort.
(3) Bahadur Shah (c) Disallowed to adopt son.
(4) Rani of Jhansi d) Disallowed to inherit the pension and title of the Peshwa.
(5) Mangal Pandey (e) Joined Laxmibai to fight against the British.

1. (d)
2. (e)
3. (b)
4. (c)
5. (a)

V. Answer the following in detail
Question 1.
Write the immediate cause of the revolt?
The company introduced Enfield rifle in the Indian army. Greased cartridges were to be used in this rifle. The soldiers had to bite the end of the cartridge before using it. The cartridge were said to be greased, with the fat of pig or cow hence both Hindu and Muslim soldier resented. It was regarded as an attempt to pollute them and their religion. This feeling become a spark to inflame the uprising of 1857, and become the immediate cause of the revolt.

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