RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 1 Historical Background of Rajasthan

RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 1 Historical Background of Rajasthan are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Rajasthan Adhyayan. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 1 Historical Background of Rajasthan.

Board RBSE
Textbook SIERT, Rajasthan
Class Class 9
Subject Rajasthan Adhyayan
Chapter Chapter 1
Chapter Name Historical Background of Rajasthan
Number of Questions Solved 69
Category RBSE Solutions

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 1 Historical Background of Rajasthan


Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Which modern districts can be a part of the Matsay Janpada?
(a) Alwar, Karauli, Jaipur, Bharatpur
(b) Alwar, Bharatpur, Dhaulpur, Karauli
(c) Alwar Bharatpur, Jaipur, Dhaulpur
(d) Alwar, Jaipur, Bharatpur, Kota

Question 2.
The dynasty which ruled over Mewar for the longest period is
(a) Chauhan
(b) Kachhvahas
(c) Guhilots
(d) Pratihar

Question 3.
The capital of Rathore prior to Jodhpur was
(a) Mandore
(b) Bheenmal
(c) Amber
(d) Oasian

Question 4.
The Modern nomenclature, Rajasthan was, first of all, used by
(a) George Thomas
(b) Gauri Shankar Hirachand Ojha
(c) Kanigham
(d) James Tod

Question 5.
Where have the oldest evidences of the ploughed farms been found in Rajasthan?
(a) Kalibanga
(b) Ahad
(c) Baurath
(d) Rangmahal

Question 6.
The consequent of the first war of Tarain was
(а) Prithviraj Chauhan’s defeat
(b) Prithviraj Chauhan’s death
(c) Prithviraj Chauhan’s victory
(d) Fleeing from the battle field by Prithviraj Chauhan

Question 7.
The architect of the Kirti Stambh (Victory Pillar) was
(a) RanaSanga
(b) Rana Kumbha
(c) RanaLakha
(d) Rana Uday Singh

Question 8.
Which famous battle was fought on June 18, 1576?
(a) Dewar
(b) Chittor
(c) Haldighati
(d) Khanwa

Question 9.
Which ruler of the medieval Rajputana can be recognised as the modem ruler?
(a) Mirza Raja Jai Singh
(b) Raja Man Singh
(c) Raja Ram Singh II
(d) Sawai Jai Singh

Question 10.
Who was called the Yulilash of Rathores by James Tod?
(a) Rao Chander Sen
(b) Rao Surtaan
(c) Durgadas
(d) Rao Jodha

Question 11.
Which archives is the most ancient (the oldest) witness to the Vaishnav religion in Rajasthan?
(a) Bijolia Archives
(b) Ghosundi Archives
(c) Hustikundi Archives
(d) Kirti Stambh Archives

Question 12.
Which Sufi Saint has been associated with Nagaur in the medieval period?
(a) Khwaja Moinuddin Hasan Chisti
(b) Hamiduddin Nagauri
(c) Sheikh Bakhtiyar Kaki
(d) Nizamuddin Auliya

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you know about the nomenclature or naming of Rajasthan?
George Thomas was the first to name the present Rajasthan as ‘Rajputana’ in 1800. The known historian, Col James Tod named it Raythan or Rajasthan in his book ‘Annals and Antiquities’ in 1829.

Question 2.
Write two characteristics of the Ahar Civilization.
Two characteristics of the Ahad or the Ahar civilization are:

  1. The houses were planned to be provided with open space, verandah or gallery,
  2. The art of making clay pots /wares was very popular.

Question 3.
Write about the Dilwara Jain temples.
The Dilwara (Abu) Jain temples are known for their fine enamelling, engraving and stone mosaic work in the whole world. They are built of white marble.

Question 4.
When was the Haldighati war fought? Which were the parties to war and what were the consequences?
The Haldighati War was fought on 18th June, 1576 between Maharana Pratap of Mewar and Mansingh, Akbar’s representative. It was an indecisive war.

Question 5.
Who got built the Rajsamand lake and why?
Maharaja Raj Singh of Mewar got built the Rajsamand lake in order to reach help of the people of Mewar in times of crisis and to promote the artistic trends.

Question 6.
Name the main four buildings of Amber.
Four main buildings of Amber:

  1. Amber fort
  2. Jagat Shiromani temple
  3. Diwan-e-Aam and Dewan-e-Khas
  4. Shila Devi Temple

Question 7.
Which Sufi Saints’ Dargahs (tombs) are located in Ajmer and Nagaur?

  1. Ajmer has Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti’s Dargah.
  2. Nagaur has Sufi Saint Hamiduddin Nagaur’s Dargah.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a brief note on the Kalibanga Civilization.
The Kalibanga Civilization:

  1. This civilization was settled on the Sarswati-Drishadvati rivers in the present Hanumangarh district.
  2. There were two mounds — The eastern mound and the western mound. Both the mounds were fortified for the security reason.
  3. Pre-Harappan period, Harappan period and post Harappan period remains have been found here.
  4. The pre-Harappan period ploughed farms have been located here.
  5. In the absence of stones the walls were built of mud-bricks and their joints were filled with ash.
  6. There was a sanitary system in the form of private and public drains and clay wares to collect waste.
  7. As a proof to their religious beliefs, Aganivedas’ have been found.
  8. The present Ghaghar river flowing there was known as Sarswati in the ancient period.
  9. Sun baked bricks were used for construction.
  10. Script engraved on the clay wares and seals have a resemblance to the Saindhav script.
  11. The agricultural implements of copper have been found as a proof of their economic development.
  12. Drains for the outlet of water were made of wood and bricks.

Question 2.
Express various views regarding the origin of the Rajputs.
Diverse views regarding the origin of the Rajputs:

  1. As given in the Chand Bardai’s Prithviraj Raso, four dynasties of the Rajputs, i.e. Parmar, Chalukya, Pratihar and Chauhan emerged from the flames of Rishi Vashisht’s sacrificial fire, to destroy the demons or devils.
  2. According to Gauri Shankar Hirachand Ojha they were the descendants of the Surya (solar) and Chandra (lunar) dynasties. Thus, he traced their origin to the ancient Kshatriyas.
  3. As per the great historian of Rajputana, Col James Tod, the Rajputs were the Shakas and the Seethians.
  4. Dr. D.R. Bhandarkar has compared them with white Himes who were from the foreign dynasty. As the Rajputs were Guijars, they too were the descendants of the foreign race.
    Besides, Bhandarkar has, somewhere, recorded that some of the Rajput dynasties emerged from the Brahmans.
    However it is Dr. Ojha’s view which is the most acceptable and populous.

Question 3.
Write an introductory note on the Chauhan rulers of Ranthambore and Jalore?

  1. The Chauhan rulers of Ranthambor: The Chauhan dynasty was founded by Govind Raj . The most renowned Chauhan ruler was Hammir. Jalaluddin Khilji of Delhi made an unsuccessful attack on Ranthambore during the reign of Hammir. In 1301, Alauddin Khilji invadèd Ranthambore. Hammir faced bravely the enemy forces but he became a martyr. With Hammir came an end to the Chauhan dynasty rule in Ranthambore.
  2. The Chauhan rulers of Jalore: The founder of the Jalore Chauhans was Kirtipal and the famous ruler was Kaanharadey Chauhan. In 1308 Alauddin Khilji invaded Sivana, before capturing Jalore. At that time one of the Chauhan sardars, Saataldev was Rakshak (guard) of the fort. He lost the fort to Alauddin. After this victory, in 1913 Jalore saw its decline and Kaanharade became a martyr.

Question 4.
Evaluate Maharana Kumbha’s achievements.
Maharana Kumbha’s achievements:

  1. In 1437 Rana Kumbha had defeated Mahmud Khilji, the sultan of Malwa (Mandu) in the battle of Sarangpur. In honour of this victory he got built the Kirti Stambh (Vijay Stambh) in Chittorgarh.
  2. Kumbha had got built 32 forts for the defence of Mewar. Famous among these forts were Basanti fort, Machan fort, Achalgarh fort and Kumbhalgarh fort. The highest part of Kumbhalgarh fort is known as Katargarh.
  3. Kumbha was a great lover of architecting temples. The main temples of the Kumbha period are Kumbhswami and Shringar Chauri temples (Chittor), Meera temple (Eklingji) and Ranakpur temple.
  4. Kumbha was, at the same time, a great scholar and a learned man. He was highly adept in the Vedas, Smriti, Mimansa, Upanishadas, Grammar and literature. His famous music creations were Sangeetraj, Sangeet Mimansa and Sudprabandh.
  5. Kumbha’s court was decked with the great scholars. His courtiers included Mandan (a known sculptor), Atri and Mahesh (poets) etc.

Question 5.
Name the four renowned places of the Jainism or the Jain religion in Rajasthan.
Four religious places of the Jains in Rajasthan:

  1. Dilwara Jain Temples of Mt. Abu are known for their engraving, fine carving, enamelling and stone mosaic.
  2. Rishabhdev temple in the Kherwada Tehsil of Udaipur is a great place of worship by the Jains. Fair is held, here, every year.
  3. Ranakpur in the Pali district is known for the Jain temples. It has the main temple of the first Tirathankar Aadinath (Rishabhdev). It is an embodiment of the Jain art and religious traditions of Rajasthan.
  4. Osian in the Jodhpur district has a great name for the Jain temples. They are the superb specimen of architecture. Architectural numerations, related to the Jainism, on the Toran Dwar and Stambhs of the Mahavir Swami temple, here, are worth visiting.

Question 6.
Write about the religious significance of Pushkar.
Pushkar near Ajmer is the famous pilgrimage of the Hindus. Taking bath in the ghats of the Pushkar tank is considered to be a sacred and religious ceremony. There is the oldest Chaturmukhi Brahma Temple in the Tirathraj, Pushkar. Other known temples of Pushkar are Ranganath, Savitri and Varah temples. Every year in the month of Kartik, a fair is held at Pushkar. This fair attracts the foreign tourists in a large number and it has become the hub of trading in animals.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write a brief essay on the achievements of the prominent rulers of the medieval period Rajasthan.
The medieval period history of Rajasthan unfolds before us the role played by the rulers of various dynasties, as the Guhilots-Shishodia Kachhvahas, Rathores, Chauhans. We discuss below the significant achievements of the rulers of these dynasties.
I. Guhilots-Shishodia Dynasty:

1. Ratan Singh:
During the rule of Ratan Singh Alauddin Khilji had invaded Mewar and got murdered 30,000 Hindus in Chittorgarh. Ratan Singh’s and Gora Badal’s martyrdom during the stiff fight against Alauddin and his forces conveys the message of self sacrifice for the sake of honour and defence of the country. His wife Padmini along with 1600 women sacrificed their lives on the burning pyres of their male life partners.

Thus Padmini’s self sacrifice and ‘Johar’ continue to inspire the women with a new message. The Shishodia Sardar Hammir of the Rana faction handled smoothly the delicate situation of Mewar. During Rana Lakha’s period the Pichhola lake dam (Udaipur) was built, paving way for the economic prosperity of Mewar. Lakha’s son Mokal made Mewar the centre of intellectual and a cultural activities. He got constructed a safety enclosure around Eklingji temple and got renovated Samadhieshwar temple of Chittor.

2. Rana Kumbha, Mokal’s son:
His period is known for the political, literary and cultural advancement in Mewar. He had given a defeat to Mahmud Khilji, the Malwa Sultan in Sarangpur battle in 1437. In the honour of this victory he got built Kirti Stambh (Victory Stambh) in Chittorgarh as an offering to his venerable god Vishnu.

– He got constructed 32 forts for the defence of Mewar such as Basanti fort Machan fort, Achalgarh, Kumbhalgarh etc.
– Temple architecture of his time carries a great significance. A few names to be mentioned among them are Kumbhaswami and Shringar temples (Chittor), Meera temple (Eklingji) and Ranakpur temple.
– He was very adept in the Vedas, Smriti, Mimansa, Upanishadas, grammar, literature and politics. Sangeetraj, Sangeet Mimansa and Sud Prabandh were his great creations.
– Kumbha gave a great recognition to the scholars in his court, such as Mandon, (a known sculptor), poets Aatri and Mahesh, Kanha Vyas etc.

3. Rana Sanga:
He defeated Mahmud Khilji II of Malwa in the Gagron battle, and Ibrahim Lodi, the sultan of Delhi in the battle of Khatauli. Rana Sanga was the last Hindu Raja who succeeded infringing together all the Rajput clans to send the foreigners out of India. He lost his one eye, one hand and one leg for the dignity and honour of his country and he had 80 sword wounds on the different parts of his body. He had proved by virtue of his character and self-realisation that Swadesh defence and humanity are over and above the dignity of post and diplomacy.

4. Maharana Udai Singh:
He founded the city of Udaipur in 1559. He fought a fierce battle against Banveer, Maldev and Haji Khan Pathon and set an example of his courage and bravery.

5. Maharana Pratap, Uday Singh’s son:
He and his Mewar became the synonymous for each other by virtue of his acts of bravery, sacrifices and national pride during his reign of 25 years. He did not accept Akbar’s suzerainty unlike other princes. He was a man of firm determination and strong will, true to his words and had a strong sense of duty. He gave his subjects a ray of hope, kept the enemies at bay and instilled in his forces a sense of duty. He was adamant to defend Mewar at all costs and not to yield to the will of Akbar. In the battle of Haldighati (18th June, 1576) Maharana Pratap gave a slip to the Mughals in the battle field and left the arena on the back of his horse, Chetak.

In 1582 Rana Pratap set an example of his bravery by killing Sultan Khan Akbar’s agent in the battle of Dewar. During his life span he had recaptured Chittor, Mandalgarh and major parts of Mewar. He made, from time to time, Kumbhalgarh and Chavand his capitals. Col. James Tod writes Akbar’s high ambitions, administrative ability and unlimited resources were not sufficient enough to mitigate Maharana’s strong courage and sincerity for keeping alive his formidable bravery and honour …. Haldighati is Mewar’s Thermopalli and Dewar is Mewar’s Marathan. He was a source of inspiration for many Indian patriots during India’s national movement.

6. Maharana Raj Singh:
He got built the Rajsamand lake in order to help the people in the period of crisis and to promote the artistic trends.

II. Kachhavahas Dynasty:

1. Rao Dulha Rao and Prithviraj were the early rulers of this dynasty. They had merged Dausa, Ramgarh, Khoh, Jhotwada, Gator and Amer with their state.

2. Mansingh:
He was the able and trusted army Chieftain in Akbar’s court. He was one of the nine jewels in Akbar’s court. He was honoured with 7000 Mansab by Akbar and was appointed the Subedar (governor) of Kabul, Bihar and Bengal. He got built Shila Devi temple and Jagat Shiromani temple in Amer.

3. Mirza Raja Jai Singh:
During his 46 years’ rule he worked under Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb. He was awarded ‘Mirza Raja’ title by Shahjahan. Aurangzeb had sent him to fight against the Marathas in the southern India. Jai Singh defeated Shivaji and sent an example of his farsightedness by signing a treaty of Purander with the Marathas. He was a lover of architecture and he got built, Amber palaces, and Jaigarh as well as Jaisinghpura in Aurangabad.

4. Sawai Jai Singh II:
He was a politician, diplomat, astronomer, scholar and a laureate. He was also the subedar of Malwa. On 17th July, 1734 he convened the sammelan of the Rajput kings at Hurda (Bhilwara) in order to strengthen his position in Rajputana and give a stiff fight to the Marathas. He established his supremacy over Bundi by his interference in its internal matters. He prepared an accurate table of the planets in 1725 and named it ‘Zizmuhammadshahi’ in the name of the Mughal emperor. He wrote the Astrological scripture named ‘Jaisingh Karika’. He established Jaipur in 1727.

He got built Sudarshangarh (Nahargarh) fort in Jaipur, the Jaiban gun in the Jaigarh fort and five observatories (Jantar-mantar) in Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura and Banaras. ‘Surya clock’ in the Jaipur observatory known as Samrat Yantra was built by Sawai Jai Singh. It is the biggest ‘Surya clock’ in the world. He held Vajpey, Rajsurya yajnas. He was the last Hindu emperor to solemnise the Ashvamedha Yajna as per the Hindu traditions. These contributions by Sawai Jai Singh II brought him a great name and fame.

III. Rathore Dynasty:
The Rathore kingdoms were spread over the North-West parts of Rajasthan. Important rulers of this dynasty and their contributions are:

  1. Rao Siha:
    He ruled over a very small part of Marwar.
  2. Rao Jodha:
    He got settled Jodhpur and built there Meharangarh.
  3. Rao Ganga:
    He exalted his political power.
  4. Rao Maldev:
    He was a brave, adventurous and powerful ruler of his times. During his period Marwar had extended its boundaries upto Hindaun, Bayana, Fatehpur Sikri and Mewar borders. He expanded his empire by killing Rao Jaitsi of Bikaner in Saheba battle field and established his hold over Bikaner.
  5. Chander Sen:
    He was a man of self dignity and independent nature. He brought glory to his dynasty and never yielded to the will of the Mughals.
  6. Mota Raj Uday Singh:
    He was the first Marwar ruler to win Mughal’s favour. He married his daughter, Manibai in 1587 to Jahangir.
  7. Jaswant Singh:
    He was not only brave, courageous and a diplomat but also a lover of knowledge and art. He wrote ‘Bhasha Bhushan’ play. He fought against Shuja in the Khajua war (1659), on the side of Aurangzeb. He also fought against Aurangzeb in the ‘Dharmat War’ (1658), on the side of the royal forces.
  8. Rao Bika:
    Rao Bika, son of Jodha of Jodhpur settled Bikaner (1488) and made it the second centre of Rathore authority.
  9. Maharaja Raisingh:
    He conducted Gujarat, Kabul and Kandhar campaigns for the Mughals. He got constructed the Bikaner fort. He was by nature, a liberal and benevolent ruler. Therefore Munshi Devi Prasad has designated him as ‘Karan of Rajputana’. Akbar and Jahangir relied on him and was highly impressed by his loyalty and acts of bravery.
  10. Maharaja Anup Singh:
    He was a brave diplomat and a learned ruler. He wrote Anupvivek, Kamprobodh, Sharad Proyog, Chintamani etc. He loved music. During his stay in the south he saved many scriptures from being destroyed. He purchased them to keep them in his library. It was he who got compiled Kumbha’s musical scriptures. Anup library in Bikaner is today a great storehouse of knowledge and learning. While he was in the south he collected many idols and saved them from being tarnished. This compilation of the idols is preserved safely in the ‘Tantees (33) crore gods’ temples’.
  11. Sawant Singh of Kishangarh:
    He was Krishna Bhakt and was hence, famous as Nagaridas. During his time art of painting had a tremendous development. Nihalchand was the renowned painter of Kishangarh paintings style. He had painted the world famous ‘Bani-thani’ painting.

IV. Chauhan Dynasty:

1. Prithvirsy Chauhan III:  He had conquered Mahoba in 1182 by defeating Chandels. He gave a great setback to the Turks in India by defeating Muhammad Gauri in the first war of Tarain in 1191. He continued fighting against one power or the other from the beginning of his rule till the end of his administration. This proves that he was a great warrior and an army commander. He won all the battles excepting the battle of Tarain, 1192.

He was a virtuous man and honoured all the virtuous men. Jai Naik, Vidhyapati Gaur, Vagishewar, Janardan and Vishwaroop were the great writers and poets in his court. Their creations have immortalised his period. Jai Nayak had written Prithviraj Vijay. The writer of Prithviraj Raso, Chand Bardai was given shelter in Prithviraj’s court.

2. Govindraj: He founded the Chauhan dynasty of Ranthambore.

3. Hammir: He was one of the intellectual rulers of Ranthambore branch of the Chauhans. He gave a stiff fight to Jalaluddin Khilji but he became a martyr in the battle field.

4. Kirtipal: He was the founder of the Jalore branch of the Chauhans.

5. Kanhad Dev: He was the famous ruler of the Songira branch. In 1311 when Alauddin Khilji invaded Jalore, he faced him bravely and was killed in the battle field. He was a brave warrior, great patriot and a man of good conduct.

Question 2.
Analyse the teachings and achievements of the Saints of the Bhakti movements of the medieval period Rajasthan.
Teachings and Achievements of the Bhakti saints of the medieval period Rajasthan:

1. Folk gods:
Rajasthan has developed the tradition of worshipping those folks who served their country through their self-sacrifices and devotion, and have led the life of spirituality. Popular among such folk gods are Gogaji, Pabuji,
Tejaji, Devji and Mallinathji. They have become immortal by virtue of their self-sacrifices, simple and moral living. These folk gods are being blindly followed, though many of the intellectuals have a little faith in them.

2. Dhanna:
He was born in 1415 in the at family. He held mystical and rigid views. He left his abode for Benaras and there he became Ramanand’s disciple. He believed that God could be reached through faith, devotion and contemplation. He glorified the presence and existence of guru.

3. Jambhoji:
He was bom in Peepasar and came from the Rajput Panwar dynasty.
Some of his teachings are enumerated as:

  1. He was opposed to the communal rigidities, vices and evil practices and customs. As a social reformer he upheld the widow remarriage.
  2. All his principles and teachings are known as ‘29 teachings’ and followers are known as the Vishnois.
  3. Many of the followers of the Vishnoi sect sacrificed themselves for the sake of welfare of creation and preservation of environment.

4. Raidas:
He was bom in Benaras and had come to Chittor. Raidas’ and Kabir’s principles and teachings were almost similar. Raidas’ vanis are known as the ‘Raidas Parchi’.

5. Meera Bai:
She was a princess, a female saint and a devotee of Lord Krishna from Rajasthan. She was the prominent saint of the Vaishnava Bhakti movement. She was the only daughter of Ratan Singh and was bom in Kudki around 1498-1499. She was married to Bhoj Raj, the eldest son of Rana Sanga of Chittor. Bhoj Raj breathed his last at the early age. The Mewar Royal family could not tolerate Meera Bai’s independent views and her following of Krishna and the saints. She was tortured in many ways by her brother-in-law so as to waive her faith in Krishna, e.g. he mixed poison in Cherna-Amritam of Krishna, gifted her a basket of flowers with a snake amidst them, pinned iron nails on her bed, and so on.
Her principles or teaching are:

  1. She had no concern for the worldly sorrows or pleasures. Physical tortures or pleasures were all myths for her.
  2. She was all for her Girdhar Gopal. To quote her words: ‘Mahro To Girdhar Gopal Dhujo Na Koi’.
  3. She cared a fig for worldly comforts, pleasures, prosperity, high offices, etc.
  4. She was fully dedicated to Lord Krishna and that was the only truth of life for her.
  5. Her Krishna Bhakti was based on spontaneous and inspired love and self realisation, rather than knowledge or lçarning.
  6. She was, in fact, a Satyagrahi women who fought against injustice, as per Gandhiji’s views.

6. Dadu Saint:
He was the propounder of the Dadu panth (sect). He was one of the prominent saints. He breathed his last in Naraina (Jaipur) in 1605. Naraina seat is believed to be the main peeth of the Dadu panth. He was born in Ahmedabad. He was Mansingh ruler’s contemporary.
His teachings and Achievements:

  1. He was, like Kabir, opposed to rigidities, diverse ways’ of worship.
  2. He was a monotheist. He did not distinguish between the Hindus and the Muslims in his court.
  3. He pinned his faith in the faultless and absolute eternal soul.
  4. He propagated or preached through the local language. He adopted Dundari language, but used some of the words of even Gujarati, Westernised Hindi and Punjabi.
    Hence Dadu Vaani holds it specific significance in Hindi Saint literature.
  5. Dadu was a reformist like Kabir but his teachings carry the message of humility unlike Kabir’s message of intensity.
  6. Dadu Panth propagated that love binds the rich and the commoner in a thread of unity and this paves the way for universal welfare.

7. Saint Lai Das:
He founded the Laldas sect. He conveyed through his preachings the ideals of both the Hindus and the Muslims and thus set an example of Communal harmony. The Mev Muslims treat him as a ‘Pir’. He was a social reformer and was a staunch believer in the eternal soul.

8. Ramdeoji:
He was the founder of the Kaamariya panth. He opposed untouchability and discrimination between high and low. He tried to bring harmony between the Hindus and the Muslims. His samadhi sthal is in Ramdevra (Jaisalmer district). The Hindus worship Ramdeoji as the incarnation of the Vishnu and the Muslims consider him as the ‘Pir’ of‘Pirs’.

9. Jasnathji:
He is the founder of the Jasnaathi sect and was bom in Katariyasar (Bikaner). This panth believes in the tradition of ‘Ratri Jagran’ and ‘Agni Nrilaya’.

10. Saint Ramcharan:
He was born in the Vijayvargey Vaishya family of Soda village in Tonk district. He was born in the 18th century when there was a great political and religious upheaval. In order to enforce his views he created Anabhaivaani and started Ramsnehi sect which has its main peeth in Shahpura (Bhilwara). He preached his followers the Ramnaam mantra and he spread far off the message of humanity. He was a ‘Nirgun’ devotee.
Hence the followers of Ramsnehi panth do not believe in idol worship. Main emphasis of this sect is on the principles of moral code, Guru glory, true devotion and religious discipline/order.

11. Sufi Saints:
The famous Sufi saint Khwaja Moinuddin Hassan Chisti had come to India during Muhammad ôauri’s invasions in Prithviraj Chauhan Ill’s times. They made Ajmer their centre and from there they were spread over Jalore, Nagaur, Mandai, Chittor, etc. Nagaur has the Dargah of Sufi saint Hamiduddin Nagauri which is next to the Ajmer Dargah in name and fame. The Sufi saints succeeded in cooling down the intensity of religion of the medieval period. Ajit Singh and Jagat Singh donated their villages to Dargah. Consequently, till the 18th century, there was hardly any sign of Hindu-Muslim enmity or ill-will.


Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
Who founded the city of Ajmer?
(a) Harish Chandra
(b) Ajay Raj
(c) Prithviraj II
(d) Vasudev

Question 2.
Which first Kachhvaha ruler of Amber had established matrimonial relations with the Mughals?
(a) Prithviraj
(b) Bharmal
(c) Sawai Jai Singh II
(d) Mirza Raja Jai Singh

Question 3.
How many forts were built in Mewar by Kunbha?
(a) 30
(b) 32
(c) 35
(d) 38

Question 4.
The war of Khanwa was fought in
(a) March, 1527
(b) July, 1527
(c) March, 1529
(d) April, 1529

Question 5.
Ranakpur in Pali district is known for the
(a) Buddhist monasteries
(b) Jain Temples Parsi
(c) Hindu Temples
(d) Fire-places

Question 6.
Which was the eastern entry gate of Rajasthan establishment in the 18th century?
(a) Alwar
(b) Pushkar
(c) Bharatpur
(d) Deedwana

Question 7.
Which city of Rajasthan is known as the Paris of India or the Pink city?
(a) Jodhpur
(b) Udaipur
(c) Ajmer
(d) Jaipur

Question 8.
With which city of Rajasthan is the Sahelion-ki-Badi associated?
(a) Jaipur
(b) Udaipur
(c) Kota
(d) Ajmer

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When was the Khanwa war fought and between whom?
The Khanwa war was fought in March 1527 between Rana Sanga and Babur.

Question 2.
Who founded Jodhpur and when?
Jodhpur was founded by Rao Jodha in 1459.

Question 3.
Name any four folk gods of Rajasthan.
Four folk gods of Rajasthan:

  1. Gogaji
  2. Pabuji
  3. Tejaji
  4. Malli Nalhji

Question 4.
Name any two creations of Kumbha.
Two creations of Kumbha are:

  1. Sangeet Mimansa
  2. Sangeet Raj.

Question 5.
Who was Bhamha Shah? Why is he known as a donor and benefactor?
Bhamha Shah is known as a great donor and benefactor because he had surrendered his all assets to Maharana Pratap in times of crises.

Question 6.
In which place of Pilgrimage in Rajasthan is a big fair held every year in the Kartik month?
Every year in the month of Kartik a big fair is organised at Pushkar in Rajasthan.

Question 7.
By whom was the observatory, Jantar Mantar of Jaipur founded?
Observatory, Jantar-Mantar was founded by Sawai Jai Singh II.

Question 8.
Who founded the present Jaipur?
The present Jaipur was founded by Sawai Jai Singh II.

Question 9.
Which ruler of Mewar was addressed as the Abhinava Bhartacharya?
Kumbha, the ruler of Mewar was addressed as the Abhinava Bharatacharya.

Question 10.
Write any two features of the Bairat Civilization.
Two achievements of the Bairat Civilization:

  1. Beejak Dungari, Bheem Dungari, Moti Dungari etc. are famous as the archaeological hills of this Civilization.
  2. Captain Burt had discovered Ashoka’s Bhabru archives from the Beejak Dungari.

Question 11.
What does the first Saka of Chittor mean?
Many Chittor rulers as Ratan Singh, Gora Badal and thousands of Rajput warriors became martyrs while fighting against Alauddin Khilji forces. It is known as the first Saka of Chittor.

Question 12.
Which is the most popularly held view regarding the origin of the Rajputs?
Gauri Shankar Ojha’s view that Rajputs were the descendants of the ancient Kshatriyas, is the most acceptable and popular.

Question 13.
Name the titles used to address Kumbha.
Kumbha was labelled with various titles as Abhinava Bhartacharya, Hindu Surtaan, Chap Guru, Dan Guru, etc.

Question 14.
Write the names of four renowned scholars in Kumbha’s court.
Four renowned scholars in Kumbha’s court were:

  1. Mandan
  2. Kavi Atri
  3. Mahesh
  4. Kaanha Vyas.

Question 15.
Name the two main memorials of Ajmer.
The two main memorials of Ajmer:

  1. Dai, Din-Ka Jhonpara built by Kutubuddin-Aibak.
  2. Moinuddin Chisti-Ki-Durgah, the Sufi Saint.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Describe the impact and hold of the Mauryans over Rajasthan.
The Mauryans’ impact and hold over Rajasthan is justified by the following reference:

  1. Ashoka’s Bairath rock inscription and the temple built by his heir Kunan’s son, Samprati.
  2. Chittor fort and Chitrang ponds were constructed by the Mauryan king, Chitrang as described in Kumarpal Prabandh and other Jain scriptures.
  3. Four names, i.e. Maheshwar, Bheem, Bhoj and Maan have been found inscribed on the Mansarovar pond at a little distance from Chittor, by Col. Tod.
  4. A rock inscription found in the Shivalaya of Kansava near Kota, bears Maurya dynasty king Dhawal’s name.

Question 2.
On what basis has Gauri Shankar Hirachand Ojha rejected Col Tod’s views regarding the origin of the Rajputs?
Col. James Tod’s theory of resemblance between the customs-rites and traditions followed by the Rajputs and the foreigners—Huns, Shakas and Kushans has been dismissed by Gauri Shankar Hirachand Ojha because, firstly, such practices were not new, they were deeply rooted in the Indian history.
Secondly, the Vedic and the Pauranic Society and culture of India provide nature of such practices.

Question 3.
What have you to say about the advent of the Aryans in Rajasthan?
The Marudhara rivers like Sarswati and Drishadvati provided shelter to the ancient Aryan colonies/townships. It is believed that the Aryans, later, moved to Doabs and other places from here only. The Aryans, most probably, could seek knowledge about the secrets of salvation, significance of the Yogas, and creation of Mantras to adore Indra and Som, during the period of their stay here. It is learnt from the Mahabharata and the Pauranic references that Balram and Krishna passed through Jangal (Bikaner) and Marukantar (Marwar), and they were from the Yadav clan of the Aryans.

Question 4.
Write about the rise or origin of the Janpadas in Rajasthan.
After the Aryans’ transit, there was a rise of the Janpadas in Rajasthan. Offended by Alexander’s expeditions, and due to their intense desire to safeguard their independence, the Malav, Shivi and Arjunayan races of Punjab accompanied by many other races came to Rajasthan and got settled here as per their convenience. Important among them are Rajany and Matsay Janpad of Bharatpur, Shivi Janpad of Nagari, Shalv Janpad of Alwar. Besides between 300 BC and middle of 300 AD, there was dominance of Malav, Arjunayan and Yodheyon Janpadas.

Question 5.
Write a few lines about Maharana Pratap and his act of bravery.
Maharana Pratap, born on May 9,1540 in Katargarh earned name for himself and Mewar for his acts of bravery, sacrifices and national pride. He was determined to defend Mewar at the time when Akbar was bent upon subduing independence of Mewar. This unmatched ambition of the two became the cause of war of Haldighati (June 18,1576). Akbar’s agent Mansingh could do no harm to Maharana Pratap. Pratap’s tactics compelled the Mughals to flee from Mewar.

Question 6.
‘Mahabharata has cited Abu as one of the pilgrimages. Explain it.
Abu is located in the midst of Aravalli mountain ranges, near Sikar. Its highest point is Guru Shikhar. Abu is known for the Dilwara Jain temples. Aadinath temple built by Vimalshah and Neminath temple built by Vastupal and Tejpal are worth visiting. The Dilwara temples of Abu have a great repute in the whole of India for their works of engraving, enamelling and stone mosaic. These temples were built in the 11th and 13th centuries. The white marble has been used in the construction of these temples and the fine engraving on the white marble is unparallel. The Abu mound is considered to be the place of origin of the Aganikul Rajputs.

Question 7.
Write about the first Rajput ruler who established matrimonial alliance with the Mughals.
Bharamal was the first Rajput ruler to enter the matrimonial alliance with the Mughals. He could judge the emerging power of Akbar and in 1562 he surrendered to Akbar’s sovereignty and his eldest daughter Harkubai to Akbar. She was known as Marium Ujjamani.

Question 8.
Write about Man Singh, the Kachhavaha ruler of Amber.
He was the able, and trusted army commander in Akbar’s court. During Ranthambore invasion in 1569 Man Singh and his father, Bhagwant Das were on the side of Akbar. Man Singh was appointed by Akbar the subedar (governor) of Kabul, Bihar and Bengal. He was Akbar’s one of the famous Navratnas and he was honoured with Mansab 7000 by Akbar. Man Singh got constructed in Amber, the Shila Devi temple, Jagatshiromani temple etc. It was during his time that Dadudayal wrote ‘Vaani’.

Question 9.
Write about the existence and prevalence of the Vaishnav religion in Rajasthan?
Ghausundi’s writing of the 2nd century is the very first proof to the existence of the Vaishnav religion in Rajasthan. Other proofs of the Vaishnav religion * in Rajasthan are Krishan Mandir in Khadiya village, Kumbh Shyam temple in Chittor and Kumbhalgarh, Jagdish temple in Udaipur, Srinathji temple of Nathdwara and Ghanshyamji temple of Jodhpur. Meera, as the woman saint, is the unique example of Krishna Bhakti of the contemporary period. The Krishna devotees as Prithviraj of Bikaner, Vijay Singh of Jodhpur and Nagaridas of Kishangarh have their special significance as the followers of Vaishnav religion. There was no dearth of even the devotees of Rama in Rajasthan at the time of Kachhavaha. The rulers look for themselves the title of‘the Raghuvansha Tilak’.

Question 10.
Why does Mandawa attract the tourists in a large number?
Mandava in Jhunjhunu is the most important town of the Shekhawati region. It attracts tourists in a large number because of its specific features as desert mounds as enclosures of the town, seths’ havelis, their architecture and the wall paintings of the havelis. Goenka Haveli, Ladions haveli, etc. are a great centre of attraction because of the haveli paintings art.

Question 11.
Write about the religious significance of Nathdwara in Rajasthan.
Nathdwara is known in the whole country for the Vaishnav temple of Srinathji. It is located on the banks of the Banas river in the Rajsamand district. It is the main pilgrimage of the Pushtimargey. This temple houses the infant idol of Krishna. This idol was originally worshipped at Mathura and was shifted to Sihadgram (present Nathdwara) in order to protect it from anti-Hindu fanatic policies of Aurangzeb and was instituted in Nathdwara under the protection of the then Maharana Raj Singh of Mewar. Nathdwara is known for the Pichhwai paintings and enamelling works. The temple fetches the highest amount of offerings in Rajasthan.

Question 12.
Write about the Amber (Amer) monuments.
Amber was the capital of Dhundar state prior to the formation of the Jaipur state. It is located seven miles away from Jaipur to its North-east. Amer has the Amber fort known for its architectural beauty. The fort boasts of various buildings of prominence like the Diwan-e-Aam, Diwan-e-Khaas (Sheesh Mahal). The Amer fort has an impact of both the Hindu and the Muslim architecture. The fort also has the Shila Devi temple and the Jagatshiromani temple. The fort was built during Raja Man Singh’s period in 1592 AD. He brought the Shila Devi idol from Bengal. Amer has now become the most popular tourist site in Jaipur.

Question 13.
Write about the historical and tourist places of Jaipur.
Sawai Jai Singh established, the city of Jaipur, popularly known as Paris of India and the pink city in 1727. City Palace of Jaipur is the residence of the royal family of Jaipur. The city presents the mixture of the Rajput and the Mughal architecture. Adjoining the city palace is the Govind Devji temple built by Sawai Jai Singh. Observatory, the Jantar Mantar built by Sawai Jai Singh, has its own uniqueness. It has the biggest solar clock of the world. Other historical and tourist resorts of Jaipur are Nahargarh Fort, Hawa Mahal, Ram-Niwas Bagh, Albert Hall, museum, etc.

Question 14.
What is the historical significance of Haldighati?
Haldighati is a significant historical site that has witnessed the battle of June 15, 1575. The battle of Haldighati was fought between Rana Pratap Singh of Mewar and Raja Man Singh of Amber, Akbar’s agent. This was a fierce battle but it remained indecisive. The great imperialist, Akbar failed to impose his arbitrary will on the brave and courageous Pratap. The battle place has been declared a national memorial.

Question 15.
Write about the achievements of the early rulers of the Kachhavaha dynasty?
Duleh Rao and Prithviraj, the early rulers of the Kachhavaha dynasty were very influential. They had merged Dausa, Ramgarh, Khoh Jhotwada, Gatore and Amber with their kingdoms. Prithviraj had fought the Khanwa war, 1547 against Babur. In 1547 Bharmal was enthroned in Amer. He accepted Akbar’s suzerainty in 1562 and married his eldest daughter, Harkubai to Akbar. She is known in history as Begum Marium-Ujjmani. Bharmal was the first Rajput ruler to establish matrimonial alliance with the Mughals.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How did the present name, Rajasthan come into being?
Prior to the present name Rajasthan, there was no single name in use. Various names were in prevalence for different regions or parts.

  1. Jangal Desh was the name used for the present Bikaner and Jodhpur during the Mahabharat period. Therefore the Bikaner rulers designated themselves as Jangaldhar Badshai.
  2. Sapadlaksha was the name popularly used for the central part of Nagaur and Ajmer. It was under the rule of the Chauhans.
  3. Kuru Desh: It was the northern part of Alwar. Its capital was Indraprasth.
  4. Matsay Desh was the southern and western part of Alwar. Its capital was Viratnagar.
  5. Shursen was the name used for the eastern part of Alwar. Its capital was Mathura.
  6. Shiva was the ancient name of the Udaipur state. Its capital was Madhyamika.

Today Madhyamika is known as Nagari. It has remained under suzerainty of Mev clan and as such it also came to be known as Medpaat or Pragwat.

  1. Bagar was the name given to Dungarpur and Banswara region.
  2. Maru and Marwar: It was the Jodhpur state and the southern part of Jodhpur was known as Gurjartara.
  3. Arpud (Abu) was the part of Sirohi.
  4. Jaisalmer was known as Maad and Kota and Bundi were commonly known as Hadauti.
  5. It is a common belief that in 1800 George Thomas used for the first time the nomenclature, Rajputana for the whole of the above stated region. The famous historian, col. James Tod used the term Raithan or Rajasthan in his book, Annals and Antiquities in 1829. This name Rajasthan was officially accepted after India’s independence.

Question 2.
Express varying views regarding the origin of the Rajputs in Rajasthan.
Views regarding the Origin of the Rsyputs:
1. Agnivanshiye:
In Prithviraj Raso, Chand Bardai supports the view that the four Rajput dynasties; Pratihar, Parmar, Chalukya and Chauhan emerged from the flames of the sacrificial fire lit by Rishi Vashisht, in order to destroy demons. The Bhatas continued to propagate this view between 16th to 18th centuries. Muhan Nainsi and Suryamall Misan further highlighted it. This fire born view does not seem to be practical and true. Gauri Shankar Hirachand Ojha, C. V. Vaidhya, Dasarath Sharma and Pswari Prasad have rejected this view as unfounded and baseless.

2. Suryavanshi and Chandravanshi:
In support of his views that the Rajputs are the descendants of the ancient Khashtriya, Gauri Shankar Hirachand Ojha has cited proofs from many rock-inscriptions and literary scriptures. It is considered to be the most popularly held view.

3. Shaka and Sithiyan Clans:
Col. James Tod, the well-known historian of Rajputana has traced the origin of the Rajputs to the Shaka and Sithiyan clans. In support of his view he has referred to many customs and traditions having resemblance to the Shaka customs, such as Suiya worship, Satipratha, Ashwamedh Yajna, use of alcoholic drinks, worship of horses, tools, etc. William Cook also supported Col Tod’s views.

On the contrary Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha rejected this view on the ground that the customs, traditions and conventions to which Col. Tod has referred were prevalent in India from the times immemorial and he has justified his view on the basis of the Vedic and Pauranic samaj and culture. Hence it is unjustified, according to him, to trace the origin of the Rajputs to the foreign clans as Shakas, Kushans and Hunes.

4. Foreign Race or Clan:
Dr. D.R. Bhandarkar advocates that the Rajputs were Guijars and were related to the White Huns, hence they had foreign origin. In support of his views he has quoted references from the Purans. In his opinion Aganivanshi Pratihars, Parmars Chalukya and Chauhans were also Gurjars because in the Raj ore archives the Pratihars are mentioned as the Gurjars. Similarly he has tried to trace origin of some of the Rajputs to the Brahamas on the basis of citations from the Bijolia rock inscriptions. Thus there is no uniformity of views regarding the origin of the Rajputs, but Dr. Ojha’s views are generally acceptable. Undoubtedly, the Rajputs are the Indians.

Question 3.
Write the main characteristics of the ancient Kalibanga Civilization.
Characteristics of the Kalibanga Civilization are as follows:

  1. This civilization was inhabited on the banks of Sarswati-Drishadvati rivers in the present Hanumangarh district.
  2. There were two mounds of its town planning. The eastern mound is the town mound which was colonised. The western mound is the fort. Both the mounds were surrounded by the defence enclosures.
  3. Kalibanga Civilization has remains of Pre-Harappan period, Harappan period and Post-Harappan civilizations.
  4. In the Pre-Harappan period civilization there are ploughed farms, perhaps the oldest in the world.
  5. In the absence of stone, the walls were made of mud bricks and they were joined with ash.
  6. There were private and public drains and clay dustbins to collect rubbish as a part of town cleanliness plan.
  7. The Ghaghar river flowing here presently was known as the Sarswati river in the ancient times.
  8. There was a practice of Agni yajnas as a part of the religious belief.
  9. The sun-baked bricks might have been in use for construction.
  10. The script engraved on the clay wares and seals bears its resemblance to the Sandheva Script, which remain deciphered till today.
  11. There were wooden and brick drains for the exit of water.
  12. The copper made tools used here, for agriculture speak of their economic advancement.
  13. The town planning of Kalibanga resembles the town planning of the Indus Valley.
  14. Three samadhis have been found here as a sign of their religious beliefs and their devotion to the dead.

Question 4.
Write an essay on different religious faiths of the medieval period Rajasthan.
The different religious faiths of the medieval period Rajasthan:
1. The Vedic religion:
Rajasthan has, to its credit, many evidences regarding the belief in the Vedic religion and related activities. The Ghausundi rock inscriptions of the 2nd century BC speak of Ashvemedha yajna. The Nandasa Yoop stambhs and some Yoop stambhs of Kota and Jaipur of the 3rd century point to the prevailing practice of Yajnas. Sawai Jai Singh kept alive the Vedic tradition till his period by performing Ashvamedha and other Yajnas. Till the 12th century, the Brahma and the Surya were worshipped as the chief gods in Rajasthan.

2. Shiva Religion:
Mewar and Marwar among others were the main states which remained under the impact of the Shiva religion. The Lakuleesh and Naath sects Acharyas succeeded in establishing their hold over the Mewar and the Marwar royal families respectively. Consequently the Maharana of Mewar adored Shri Eklingji as the lord and master of his state, and submitted his own self as his Diwan. During the rule of Man Singh of Marwars, the Naaths played a big role in the administration. Man Singh got built Mahamandir, the famous Peeth of the Naaths in Jodhpur.

3. Worship of Shakti /goddess:
Shakti was worshipped in the medieval period Rajasthan in many forms. Sachchya Mata temple of Osian and Kalika mandir of Chittor are the living example. Many royal dynasties of Rajasthan have been adoring the Shakti goddess as their Kuldevi. Many royal families are, even today, worship goddesses in various forms as:
Bikaner Royal family – Karanimata Jodhpur royal family – Naagnechimata Sisodia Prince – Baan mata Kachhvaha royal dynasty – Annapurna mata.

4. Vaishnav Religion:
It is the Dhausundi archives of the 2nd century BC, which speak of the Vaishnav religion. As a proof to the prevalence of the Vaishnav religion in Rajasthan there are examples of various temples of the period of Maharana Kumbha, namely Krishna temple in Khariya Village, Kumbh Shyam temple in Chittor and Kumbhalgarh, Jagdish temple in Udaipur, Shrinathji temple of Nathdwara, Ghanshyamji temple of Jodhpur etc. As the woman saint Meera Bai’s Krishna Bhakti is an unparallel example. Among the prominent figures of Krishna Bhakti are Prithviraj of Bikaner, Vijaysingh of Jodhpur and Nagaridas of Kishangarh. Even Ram Bhakti was a prominent part of the Vaishnav religion among Rajasthan Kachhvaha rulers who designated themselves as Raghuvansha Tilak.

5. The Jain Religion:
It has been a prominent faith of the Vaishnav in Rajasthan. Though the rulers of Rajasthan have not been the followers of the Jain religion but they have cultivated an attitudes of tolerance for this religion. There are many rock inscriptions bearing the impact of the Jain Tirthankars and the Jain religion in Jaisalmer, Nadaul, Amer, Dhulev, Ranakpur, Abu, Sirohi, etc. They stand as a witness to the prevalence of the Jain religion in Rajasthan. Jain religion has contributed in a way of thousands of manuscripts, scriptures by many great Jain scholars of Rajasthan.

6. The Islam Religion:
It was the religion prevalent, mainly, in the 12th century in Rajasthan. The famous Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Hasan Chisti had entered India during the period of Prithviraj Chauchan III. When Muhammad Gauri’s invasions were in progress. He made Ajmer his centre and from there he propagated Islam in Jalore, Nagaur, Mandai, Chittor, etc. Nagaur has the famous Dargah of the known Sufi Saint Hamiduddin Nagauri. It is a renowned place of Islam, only next to the Ajmer Dargah in Rajasthan.

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