RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 3 Art and Culture of Rajasthan

RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 3 Art and Culture of Rajasthan are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Rajasthan Adhyayan. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 3 Art and Culture of Rajasthan.

Board RBSE
Textbook SIERT, Rajasthan
Class Class 9
Subject Rajasthan Adhyayan
Chapter Chapter 3
Chapter Name Art and Culture of Rajasthan
Number of Questions Solved 52
Category RBSE Solutions

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 3 Art and Culture of Rajasthan


Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The creator of‘Harikeli’drama was
(a) Prithviraj III
(b) Vigrahraj IV
(c) Chand Bardai
(d) Maharana Kumbha

Question 2.
Gagron Durg is the type of
(a) Giri Durg
(b) Marusthal Durg
(c) Jal Durg
(d) Van Durg

Question 3.
The Patawon-Ki-Havelis are in
(a) Jaisalmer
(b) Barmer
(c) Amber
(d) Bikaner

Question 4.
Bani-Thani painting is painted in the
(a) Kishangarh style
(b) Marwar style
(c) Mewar style
(d) Kotah sytle

Question 5.
Aadinath Dilwara temple was built by
(a) Vimalshah
(b) Tejpal
(c) Vastupal
(d) Kamalshah

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name Chand Bardai’s Kavy creation.
Chand Bardai’s Kavy creation is Prithviraj Raso.

Question 2.
Where is the Marusthali Durg located in Rajasthan?
The Marusthali Durg is at Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.

Question 3.
Name any two styles of the Rajasthan paintings.
Two styles of the Rajasthani paintings are:

  1. Mewar style
  2. Kishangarh style

Question 4.
Who got built Vijay Stambh?
Vijay Stambh was built by Maharana Kumbha.

Question 5.
Who performs the Angara dance?
The Angara dance is performed by the Jasnaathi ‘Siddhs’.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the characteristics of the Dilwara temples architecture.
Dilwara temples architecture:

  1. Delwara temples in Mt. Abu are associated with the Jain community.
  2. The first temple here was built by Vimal Shah. It houses the idol of Aadinath, with jewels studded eyes.
  3. The second temple was got built by Vastupal and Tejpal. It has the idol of Neminath. It is unparallel in the art of stone patterns/modelling.

Question 2.
Enumerate the characteristics of the Mewar style of paintings.
Mewar style of Paintings:

  1. Mewar may be considered to be the oldest centre of the Rajasthani painting art.
  2. It progressed fast during the period of Maharana Amarsingh.
  3. There is a maximum application of yellow and red colours.
  4. Main features of the paintings are eagle-Nasika (Nose), eyes like straight slice of Parval, spiral long fingers, richly ornamented, tight faces etc.
  5. The subjects of the paintings were Shrimad Bhagwat Geeta, Sur Sagar, Geet Govind, Krishanlila, court scenes, hunting scenes etc.
  6. Manohar, Gangaram, Kriparam, Sahebdin and Jagannath are the prominent painters of the Mewar style.
  7. The Mughal impact on the Mewar style paintings started during the period of Raja Amarsingh.

Question 3.
‘Saint literature is an invaluable asset of Rajasthan’. Clarify it.
The Saint literature has played a vital role in influencing the masses of Rajasthan. Sants have touched the public minds by singing Bhajans with the message of ethics and practical life in simple terms. Most prominent of such saints are Mallinathji, Jambhoji and Jasnathji and other valuable assets of Sant literature are Dadu Vani, Meera Padavali, Narsiji_Ro-Maharo, Ram Charanji-Vani etc.

Question 4.
Write about the main religious fairs of Rajasthan.
Main religious fairs of Rajasthan are:
Fairs of Balaji in Jaipur, Mahaviiji near Hindon, Nathdwara, Annkoot, Datimati Mata in Gothmanglod, Dhulev in Kesariya, Bharthari near Alwar, and Galata- Pushkar near Ajmer. The people celebrate these fairs with deep faith, devotion and fervour.

Question 5.
Write about the main folk dramas of Rajasthan.
Ramlila and Raslila in the folk language by the folk artists of Mewar, Alwar, Bharatpur, Karauli and Jaipur are very popular. Rammat is the famous folk drama of Bikaner and Jaisalmer. The folk artists stage the historical and religious Kavy creations of reputed loknayaks and great men. The celebrated creators of these Mannats are Maniram Vyas, Fagu Maharaj, Suaa Maharaj and Tejpoet.

Question 6.
‘Gangaur and Teej are the unique folk festivals of Rajasthan.’ Clarify it.
Among the main folk festivals of Rajasthan, the Gangaur and the Teej hold special place. The married females whose husbands are alive and the unmarried girls worship Ishar-Ishari for the immortality of their husbands and for the suitable bridegroom respectively. This festival is celebrated in Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur and Kota with a great pomp and show by taking out Gangaur Chariot procession. Teej festival is celebrated mainly by the newly wed girls. They wear new costumes, apply Mehandi paste on their hands, feet and arms and enjoy swings and sing songs. The Teej Chariot procession of Jaipur is very famous.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
‘Rajasthan has the glimpses of coordinated culture’. Analyse the statement.
Rajasthan has been the land of invasions and wars from time to time. By virtue of the cordial, harmonious and assimilating nature of the general public, there have been growth and evolution of the coordinated/co-mingled culture in Rajasthan. One can find this assimilation and coordination in the religious and social life of the people.

1. It is due to the inherent spirit of religious tolerance that the both the Hindus and the Muslims can be seen in the Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti Dargah at Ajmer to pray and to seek blessings for the fulfillment of their long cherished desires. Similarly, at the tombs of folk deities as Gogaji and Ramdeoji, the people of all communities gather irrespective of their communal differences. This is an example of the spirit of communal harmony.

2. One can see the spirit of coordination and unisom between the Hindu and the Muslim cultures in respect of their social life, their ways of dining, living, dressing up, entertainments, customs and rites. Akbar Jalebi, Khurasani Khichari, Babar Badi, Pakauri and Moongori in our foods have been included because of the Mughal impact. Muslim, velvet, Norangshahi, Bahadurshahi textiles in our costumes show the Mughal impact. Similar impact they have left on our entertainments as kite-flying, pigeon game, etc.

3. The Hindu-Muslim architectural styles are the great indicators of the coordinated culture. Our Rajas and Maharajas used marble in the buildings under the Mughal impact. Architects made gardens, galleries and fountains as well as furnished the walls with the creeping plants. In fact the Rajasthani art and culture have all the inherent traits of the coordinated culture which remains always open to modernity, adaptability, acceptance, tolerance and assimilation, at the same time retaining and preserving its originality.

Question 2.
Write an essay on the evolution of literature in Rajasthan.
In the early times the Rajasthan literature was written in Sanskrit and Prakrit languages. In the beginning of the medieval period literature began to be written in Apabhransa and Marubhasha and the local dialects as Mewari Marwari Mewati, Dundari and Bagari, but the Sanskrit continued to evolve.

I. Sanskrit Literature:
In Rajputana the learned rulers and state patrons (scholars) played a great role in evolving Sanskrit. This language was the medium of rock engravings, eulogies and dynastic citations. Maharana Kumbha himself was a great scholar, lover of music and a refuge giver ruler. He created Sangeetraj, Sud Prabandh, Sangeet Mimansa, Rasikpriya, Sangeet Ratnakar, etc. Mandan who was given refuge by Maharana Kumbha created many works related to architecture such as Devmurti prakaran, Rajvallabh Roopmandan, Prasad Mandan etc.

Babu Bhatt and Ranchod were the great scholars in the court of Rana Jagat Singh and Raj Singh, who wrote Jagannath Prashanti and Raj Singh Prashanti respectively. Amer-Jaipur Maharaja Man Singh and Sawai
Jai Singh, Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Marwar, the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer, Vigarhraj IV and Prithviraj III and Rai Singh and Anup Singh of Bikaner were the Sanskrit scholars and they gave shelter to many Sanskrit scholars. Anup Singh got constructed Anup Sanskrit library in Bikaner.

Vigarhraj IV wrote Harikeli play. Jainayak, Prithviraj’s poet wrote Prithviraj Vijay. Other prominent Sanskrit creations are ‘Harivijay’ drama by Pandit Jaidev and Haribhushan by Gangaram Bhatt. Both were the Pratapgarh courtiers. Jaswant Singh of Marwar wrote Anand Vilash and Bhasha-Bhushan in Sanskrit. Man Singh of Jodhpur wrote Naath Charitar. Man Singh was a great lover of books. He got many Sanskrit scriptures from Kashi and Nepal and store them safely in library. Today this library is famous as the Man Singh Pustak Prakash Shodh Kendra.

II. Rajasthani Literature:
Rajasthani language in the form of many dialects as Mewari, Marwari, Dundari, Hadoti, Bagari, Malavi, Mewati have been used to create literature in various styles as Jain, Charan, saint, folk etc.

(i) Jain Style Literature:
It is related with the Jain religion. It predominates in Shant Ras. Its prominent literary writings are Hemchand Suri’s Deshi Nam- mala, Shabdanushasan, Rishivardhan Suri’s Nal Damayanti Ras, Dharm Samudragani’s Ratri Bhojanras, Hemratn Suri’s Gaura Badal Ri-Chaupai.

(ii) Charan Style Literature:
It dominates in the Veer Ras and the Shringar Ras. Khyat, Duha etc. have been written in the verses as well as prose forms. Veer Bhajan by Badar Dadi is the early creation of the Charan style. Chand Bardai’s Prithviraj Raso, Nainsi’s Nainsi Ri Khyat, Bankidas’ Bankidas-Ri- Khyat, Dayaldas; Dayaldas-Ri-Khyat, Gadan Shivdas Achaladas Khinchi- Ri-Vachnika are the main scriptures of the Charan style which give the glimpses of history of Rajasthan. Dolamaru Ra-Duha, Sajjan-Ra-Duha are the important creations in Doha Chhand.

Besides Dursa Aara is also among the celebrated Charan style writers. He was a national patriot, stood for the unity of India and was all praise for Hindu culture and valour. Prithviraj Rathore, Bikaner ruler Kalyanal’s son’s Velikrisan Rukmani-Ri is considered to be the literary composition of the Rajasthani literature. Suryamall Meesan was the great poet of the modern-age and was a poet in the Bundi state. His well known works are Vansh Bhaskar and Veer Satsai.

(iii) Sant Literature:
It has created a deep influence on the general masses in Rajasthan. The saints have reached the public by singing Bhajans and taking their experiences to the people in the ethical, simple and practical ways. Among the invaluable assets of the sant style are Mallinathji, Jambhoji, Jasnathji, Dadu Vani, Meera Padavati, Narasiji-Ro- Maharo, Ramcharanji Vani etc.

(iv) Folk Literature:
It combines folk songs, folk tales, love stories, folk dramas, riddles, Phads and tit-bits. Phad is a special feature of the Rajasthan art. Phad is painted on the cloth giving presentation of some historical event or Pauronic event. Most of the Phad portray the life and magical events of folk deities, as Ramdeoji, Pabuji etc. Shahpura Phad of Shahpura (Bhilwara) in Rajasthan has become of national repute. Shrilal Joshi of Bhilwara has made a great contribution to give international fame to the Phad paintings and he has been awarded with ‘Padamshri’ for his efforts by the government of India. To name a few among them are Pabu-Ri-Phad, Devji-Ri-Phad, Teej, Gangaur, marriage, rites, festivals, etc.

Question 3.
Architectural art is the asset of the history of Èajasthan? Explain it.
In the medieval period Rajasthan, the architecture of royal palaces, temples and forts held a great significance. A unique architecture style known as the Hindu architecture style was evolved during this period. Its specific features were architectural elegance, solidity, ornamentation, defence and security, utility, magnificence and diversity of subjects. After amalgamation with the Mughals, new style of architecture, known as the Hindu-Muslim architecture style, was evolved, under Turkey and the Mughal impact. We shall discuss below the Rajasthani architecture in different spheres.

1. Fort Architecture:
Forts have remained an essential requirement for the rajas and the feudals of Rajasthan. Forts were constructed for various purposes as residence, safety, storage of supply and protection and defence of the people, animals and property at the time of external invasion. The forts were built on the high and broad hills where the means of agriculture and irrigation were available.
Main features of the forts were

  1. Strong wall
  2. Huge rampart
  3. Impenetrable towers
  4. Deep canal or cleft around the fort
  5. Arsenal in the fort
  6. Water pond
  7. Temples inside the fort
  8. Provision of water tank
  9. Granary
  10. Secret entry gate
  11. Tunnel
  12. Royal palace and military rest house.

Chittor Durg is the oldest Giri durg which was got constructed by Maharana Kumbha. It is a famous saying about it — ‘Fort or garh is Chittorgarh, the remaining are Garauya i.e. small forts’. It is protected by high raised parapet and stands on huge and high hill. Other well known durgs/forts are Jalore durg of Parmars, Taragarh durg of Chauhans in Ajmer and Ranthambore durg, Taragarh durg of Bundi by Hadas, Rao Jodha’s Mehrangarh durg at Jodhpur, Ajmer durg of Kachhawaha near Jaipur, Nahargarh durg and Jaigarh durg.

Gagron durg of Parmars near Jhalawar fall in the category of Jal Durg. Maharawal Jaisalmer durg built of yellow stones is the Marusthali durg. Junagarh durg of Bikaner is built on the flat plain and is surrounded by a deep ditch. Other famous durgs of Rajasthan are Mandalgarh (Bhilwara) Achalgarh (Abu), Ranthambore (Sawai Madhopur), Bayana (Bharatpur), Siwana (Barmer), Bhatner (Hanumangarh) v etc.

2. Royal Palaces (Mahals):
Practice of raising Royal palaces started with the formation of the Rajput states in Rajasthan. The palaces had the separate male and the female apartments. The palaces were provided residential apartments, arsenal, granary, kitchen and temple. The special features of the palaces were simplicity, low ceilings, narrow gallaries, small rooms and slopes.
New additions of fountains, small gardens, domes, slender pillars, archs etc were made in the palaces as a result of coordination between the Mughals and the Rajputs.

The Kumbhalgarh and the Chittor palace are the specimen of simplicity Jagmandir, Jagniwas and Amarsingh palaces of Udaipur, Phool palace of Jodhpur, Diwan-e-aam, and Diwan-e-khas of Amer, Rangmahal, Kammahal, Sheeshmahal and Anupmahal of Bikaner and palaces of Kota and Jaisalmer bear an impact of the Mughal architecture.

3. Temple Architecture:
It owes its origin to the ancient period of Rajasthan. The impact of Durg architecture is clearly visible on the Ranakpur Jain temple and Shakti and Shaurya temple built till the 13th century.
The Dilwara Jain temples of Mt. Abu are of the same period. Here the first temple was got built by Vimalshah. This temple houses the idol of Aadinath, with its jewels studded eyes. Another temple was built by Vastupal and Tejpal. It has the idol of Neminath.

It is unique in its stone pattern. Surya temple of Chittor and Shiva temple of Badauli (Chittorgarh) are also very famous. Shrinathji temple of Dungarpur and Jagdish temple of Udaipur excel in the Hindu architecture whereas the Ghanshyam temple of Jodhpur and Jagatshiromani temple of Amer give the impact of the Mughal style. In the 17th and the 18th centuries, the Rajput rulers got built Shri Nathji (Nathdwara), Dwarkadheesh (Kankroli), Mathureshji (Kotah) and Govind Devji (Jaipur) temples.

4. Buildings Architecture:
(a) Havelis:
The buildings architecture in Rajasthan is associated with the construction of havelis. Many seths and samants had constructed grand havelis in many cities of Rajasthan. Around the main gate there were artistic small windows or air holes, long poles, spacious broad court yard with rooms around it.

The havelis of Sujangarh, Ratangarh Sardarsahyar, Pilani, Mandawa, Mukundgarh, Fatehpur, Nawalgarh and Ramgarh in the Jaipur and Shekhawati region are the super example of the building architecture in Rajasthan. Salimsingh and Patawons Havelies in Jaisalmer have become the centre of attraction for their stone perforated work and engravings. Similarly the havelis of Kota, Bharatpur, Karauli made of Vanshi stone are known for their artistic sangatrashei.

(b) Vijay Stambh (Chittorgarh):
It was constructed by Maharana Kumbha in the memory of victory over the sultan of Malwa. It is also known as Kirti Stambh and is the unique specimen of building architecture. There are nine storeys in 122 ft high stambh and there are stairs inside it to go up. Each storey is surrounded by peep holes and there have been established the Hindu gods.

(c) Tombs (Chhatris):
The Chhatris have been built on the tombs of the rulers, feudals and army personnel to commemorate their sacrifices for the defence of the nation.

Question 4.
Explain various styles of the art of paintings in Rajasthan.
15th century is considered to be the period of origin of the Rajasthan painting art. There has been a tradition of wall paintings, pothi (Book) paintings, board painting and miniature paintings in the Rajput period. Different styles of
paintings emerged in accordance with socio-political and basic environment of different states.
A few important paintings styles are:

1. Me war Style:
In fact the early and original style of the Rajasthani art of painting can be seen in the Mewar style. It had its maximum evolution during the period of Maharana Amar Singh. Main features of this style are liberal use of yellow- red colour, eagle like nose, eyes like straight slice of Parval, long spiral fingers, excessive embellishments and tight faces. Main subjects of the Mewar style were Shrimad Bhagwat Geeta, Sursagar, Geetgovind, Krishanlila, Court scenes, hunting scenes etc. The main artists of paintings were Manohar Gangaram, Kriparam, Sahibain and Jagannath. The paintings of Raja Amar Singh period show the Mughal impact on the Mewar style.

2. Marwar Style:
This style of paintings developed during the period Roomaldev in Marwar. This style was prominent in robust males, stout females, almond like eyes, type Rajasthani costumes and use of yellow colour. The subjects of the paintings were Natheharitar, Bhagwad, Panchtantra Dola-Maru, Mumalde, Nihalde, folk tales etc. The prominent painters were Veerji, Naraiandas, Bhaari Amardas, Chhajju-Bhati Kishandas and Kaluram.

3. Bikaner Style:
Its real development period was Maharaja Anup Singhs’s rule. Its characteristics are application of red, violet, grey and almond colours, scenes of sand dunes, slim and attractive females, landscape, hills, floral leaves etc. Main subjects comprised hunting, Rasikpriya, Rangmala, embellishments etc. It bears the impact of Punjab Kalam, Mughal style and Marwar style.

4. Kishangarh Style:
It is the most attractive style of the Rajput period paintings. Its maximum development took place during the Rajnagaridas period. Main features of the Kishangarh style paintings are protruding chin, wagtail, structural eyes, arrow shaped eye brows, elegant sarovars etc. Bani-Thani is the superb piece of this painting style, which is also known as the Monalisa of the Indian art of paintings. It was painted by Nihalchand. This style of painting has a fine blend of art, love and devotion.

5. Jaipur Style:
This paintings style developed between 1600 to 1700 BC. It had the maximum influence of the Mughal paintings. Its main characteristics are application of white, red, yellow, blue and green colour, use of gold and silver, robust males and delicacy of females etc. Main subjects of paintings are royal Chariot, Mehfils, Raag-Rang, hunting, Barahmasa, Geet-Govind, Ramayana etc.

6. Bundi Style:
It began with Rao Surjan, was influenced by Mewar and had * achieved all heights of development by the times of Umed Singh. Its main features are richness in red and yellow colours, short height, seven colour portray of Nature etc. Its main subjects were Rasikpriya, Kavipriya, Bihari, Satsai, Nayak-Nayika discrimination and description of seasons. It is also known as the animals-birds painting style. Its prominent painters were Surjan, Ahmad Ali, Ramlal Shri Kisan and Sadhuram.

7. Kota Style:
It is a fine blend of the Bundi and the Mughal styles. Main characteristics are females as puppets, broad eyes, short nose, broad forehead, high lehangas, straightened Veni etc. subjects of paintings are hunting, festivals, Shri Nath Katha, portray of birds, animals etc.

8. Nathdwara Style:
It is known for its own unique style of paintings. Pichhwai paintings portray Shrinath in different forms.

Question 5.
Give the analysis of the fairs and festival of Rajasthan.
I. Fairs of Rajasthan:
Fairs of Rajasthan reflect its culture. The fairs held here are related with religion, folk deities, folk saints and folk culture. The activities of dance, singing, fetes etc. add to our mutual relation. Fairs are held in each and every part of Rajasthan. The fairs tradition started here in the medieval period when the rulers themselves took keen interest in organizing fairs. Fairs are organized at the religious places or on the occasion of festivals.

In Rajasthan the fairs are held on various festivals as Ganesh Chaturthi, Navaratri, Ashtami, Teej, Gangaur, Shivratri, Janamashtami, Dussehra, Kartik Purnima etc. Similarly the fairs held in the religious places are Tejaji, Shitalamata, Ramdevji, Gogaji, Jambeshwaiji, Hanumanji, Mahadev, Aavarimata, Keladevi, Karanimata, Ambamata, Jagdishji, Mahaviiji etc. Most famous religion related fairs of Rajasthan are Balaji in Jaipur, Mahaviiji near Hindon, Nathdwara on Annkut, Dadhimati in Gothmanglod, Shivaratri in Eklingji, Dhulev in Kesaria, Bharthari near Alwar and Pushkar and Galta fairs near Ajmer.

Many fairs are held in Rajasthan to commemorate many folk saints and folk deities and to pay them homage. Some of these faris are Ramdeo in Runeeha, Tejaji in Parbatsar, Pabuji in Kolgarh, Gogaji in Daderwa, Karanimata in Deshnok, Fooldol in Narena (Jaipur) and Shahpura (Bhilwara), Jambheswari in Mukam, Gulab Baba in Gulabpura and Khwaja Saheb in Ajmer etc. There fairs are source of life and inspiration and promote peace cordiality and communal integrity and harmony. The fairs manifest the nature of culture and add to our feelings of goodwill for humanity. Fairs pass on from one generation to another and they continue to retain the cultural tradition. Fairs are commercially, too very advantageous and they are source of entertainment too.

II. Festivals of Rajasthan:
All the communities as Hindus-Muslim and the Christians celebrate each others’ festival with a great enthusiasm and zeal and set an example of communal harmony, human unism, tolerance and acceptance for each other.
Gangaur and Teej are among the main folk festivals from the Holika festival v and continues till Chaitra Shukla tritya. The married women whose husbands are alive and the unmarried women worship Ishar and Ishari for the long life of their husbands, and for being blessed with good husbands respectively. This festival is celebrated with great fervour and devotion in Jodhpur, Jaipur, Udaipur and Kota.

Gangaur chariot procession is taken out through the main places of these cities. Teej festival takes place on the third day of Shukla Paksha of Bhadrapada or Bhado. Swings, traditional songs and dancing are the unique features of Teej celebrations in Rajasthan. The women and the young girls dressed in new costumes, with mehandi paste decorating their hands enjoy swing and sing songs. The Teej Chariot procession of Jaipur is very famous. The festivals of Mahavir Jayanti and Paryurshan festival in the Bhadrapada month are celebrated by the Jain community with devotion and penances. The main festivals of the Muslim community are Eid-ul-Zuha, Eid-ul-Fitr, Shaberat, Muharram and Baràwafat. They are celebrated with full zeal and enthusiasm.
Main festivals of Rajasthan with the dates of their celebrations are listed below:

S.No. Festivals Date
1. Gangaur Falgun Shukla 15 to Chetra Shukla 3
2. Mahashivaratri Falgun Krishna Paksha 13
3. Deepawali Kartik Krishna Paksha Amavasya
4. Raksha Bandhan Shravan month purnima
5. Holi Falgun month purnima
6. Janmashtami Bhadarpada Krishna Paksha Ashtami
7. Ganesh Chaturthi Bhadrapada Shukla Paksha Chauth
8. Ramnavami Chaitra Shukla Pakasha Navami
9. Christmas Day 25th December
10. Muharram 10th of the Muharram month
11. Eid-ul-Fitr 1st of Shawal
12. Teej Bhadrapada Krishna Paksha Tritya
13. Payurshan Bhadrapad month
14. Dussehra Ashwin Shukla Paksha Dashami
15. Eid-ul-zuha 10th of zitkar

Question 6.
Describe the folk arts of Rajasthan.
Folk arts include folk songs, folk plays, folk dances, folk instruments and folk paintings. These folk arts are the life and soul of our culture. They are the source of our entertainment.
Folk Plays (Natyas):
Ramlila and Raslila in the folk language by the folk artists are very popular in Mewar, Alwar, Bharatpur, Karauli and Jaipur. In Bikaner and Jaisalmer, Rammat is famous as a folk play. Rammat means to stage the historical and religious Kavya creations of celebrated folk Nayak and great men. The known creators of these Rammatas are Maniram Vyas, Fagu Maharaj, the Sua Maharaj, Tej Kavi etc.

In Marwar the religion and Veer Ras v dominated narration Khyals are being traditionally staged and the important of them are Amar Singh’s Khyat, Ruthi-rani-Ro-Khyal, Raja Harish Chandra Khyal etc. Bhawai plays have their own uniqueness. The characters here are satirical spokesmen. Its main characteristics are dialogue, singing, humour and dance. Gavari of Mewar is a dance drama which is staged for one month 8 days from Raksha Bandhan.

As regards instrumental discourses, presentation and lok cultural symbols, the Gavari of Mewar is extraordinary. Its origin is believed to be associated with the Shiva – Bhasmasur Katha/ Its performances begin from the day next to Raksha Bandhan. It is played or staged for VA months. It dominates in the Bhil culture. This festival reflects the Pauranic and social influence on the
tribal caste.
In Gavari there are male characters. Most known Gavari plays are Ganpati Kaan- Gujari, Jogi, Lakha, Banjara etc.

I. Folk Dances:
(а) Gair Dance:
This is the Holi festival dance of the tribal areas. The Bhil males dressed in Angrakha, dhoti and turban holding sticks in their hands dance in the circular movements. They are accompanied by the musical instruments as Thali, Dol and Bankiya.

(b) Geedar Dance:
The people of the Shekhawati region celebrate holi for a week from the day of transplanting the holi stick. The mates are dressed in the vibrant dresses sing with the beat of Nangara, with two small sticks in their hands. This is called the Geedar dance.

(c) Dol Dance:
It is the popular dance of the Marusthali region, Jalore. The Mali, Doli, the Sargara and the Bhils perform the Dol dance in the Thakana style on the marriage occasion.

(d) Baman Dance:
The people of Alwar and Bharatpur perform Baman dance to enjoy the Falgun celebrations. They beat Tomtom (Tymbol) with two big sticks.

(e) Ghoomar Dance:
It is the most popular dance of Rajasthan, performed by the females on the auspicious occasions. They perform this dance in the circular movement and are accompanied by trumpet, clarionet, accordion etc.

(f) Garba Dance:
It is the devotional dance performed by women. It is very popular in Gujarat. In Rajasthan it is very popular in Dungarpur and Banswara.

(g) Other Folk Dances:
They are Angara dance of Jasnaathi Siddhs, Bhils, Rye dance, Grasias valar dance, Kalbelia dance of Kalbelia tribe. The famous professional dances are Bhawai and Terah Taali dances.

II. Folk Songs:
They are mainly Khelan-Do-Gangaur, Mhari Ghoomar Che Nakhrali a-Mai, Chirmi etc.

III. Folk Instruments:
They have their own significance and a dance without being accompanied by the musical instruments is incomplete. A few among the popular instruments of Rajasthan are Ravana Hattha, Tandoora, Nagara, Teen-Tara, Yogia Sarangi, Pungi and Bhapang.

IV. Folk Paintings:

  1. Pathvari: These are the paintings portrayed on the place in the village, adored as ‘Path Rakshak’.
  2. Paana: They are the paintings which are engraved on the paper in Rajasthan.
  3. Mandana: It is a tradition of drawing Mandanas in the form of geometrical circles, squares or irregular oblique lines on the place of worship on the occasion of festivals and auspicious ceremonies.
  4. Phad: It is the art of making paintings on clothes.
  5. Sanji: It is made with cowdung in the courtyard pavilion or place of worship of the house.


Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
‘Pyurashan’ is the festival of the
(a) Vaishnav Hindus
(b) Christians
(c) Jains
(d) Muslims

Question 2.
Who wrote Prithviraj Vijay?
(a) Jainayak
(b) Pt. Jaidev
(c) Vigrahraj IV
(d) Gangaram Bhatt

Question 3.
It is the oldest Giri Durg.
(a) Amber
(b) Mehrangarh
(c) Nahargarh
(d) Chittorgarh

Question 4.
The most prominent folk dance of Rajasthan is
(a) Dhol
(b) Garba
(c) Ghoomar
(d) Teentali

Question 5.
The Jain style literature was predominant in
(a) Shant Ras
(b) Shringar Ras
(c) Veer Ras
(d) Bhakti Ras

Question 6.
Gawari dance drama is most popular in
(a) Mewar
(b) Marwar
(c) Shekhawati
(d) Dundar

Question 7.
Who wrote Sangeet Mimansa?
(a) Rana Sanga
(b) Rana Kumbha
(c) Prithviraj
(d) Vigrahraj IV

Question 8.
Bani-Thani painting is the artistic creation of
(a) Ramlal
(b) Bihari
(c) Manohar Lai
(d) Nihal Chand

Question 9.
Khwaja Saheb fair is held in
(a) Ajmer
(b) Jaipur
(c) Nagaur
(d) Kota

Question 10.
The Phad painting style of Rajasthan is associated with which of the following cities?
(a) Shahpura
(b) Alwar
(c) Ganganagar
(d) Nathdwara

Question 11.
The festival of Holi is celebrated on
(a) 25th December
(b) Falgun month Purnima
(c) Shravan month Purnima
(d) Kartik Krishan paksha

Question 12.
Baadar Dadi by Veer Bhayan is the early creation of the
(a) Jain style literature
(b) Charan style literature
(c) Sant style literature
(d) Folk literature

Question 13.
Which style of Rajasthan paintings is known for its Pichhwai paintings?
(a) Jaipur style
(b) Bikaner style
(c) Kishangarh style
(d) Nathdwara style

Question 14.
Shabdanushasan was written by
(a) Hemchand Suri
(b) Rishivardhan Suri
(c) Hemratn Suri
(d) Suryamall Meesan

Question 15.
The Vela Krishna Rukmani scripture was created by
(а) Ruler Kalyanmall
(b) Prithviraj Rathore
(c) Prithviraj IV
(d) Nainsi

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name Suryamall Meesan’s two creations.
Names of Suryamall Meesan’s two creations are:

  1. Vansh Bhaskar
  2. Veer Satsai

Question 2.
What does culture mean?
Culture is what makes man a man in a true sense. It encompasses art, literature, costumes, music, paintings, festivals, ways of living, dining, etc.

Question 3.
What do you know about the origin of Gavari of Rajasthan?
Origin of Gavari in Rajasthan is associated with ‘Shiva-Bhasmasur’ episode.

Question 4.
Name any two religious fairs of Rajasthan.
Two religious fairs of Rajasthan:

  1. Balaji fair of Jaipur
  2. Mahavirji fair near Hindon

Question 5.
Write the names of any two Giri forts (Durgs).
Names of two Giri Durgs:

  1. Chittorgarh
  2. Kumbhalgarh

Question 6.
Who was Mandan? Name his two writings.

  1. Mandan was a celebrated scholar in Kumbha’s court.
  2. His two writings-
    1. Rajvallabh
    2. Roopmandan

Question 7.
When is Muharram celebrated?
Muharram is celebrated on 10th of the Muharram month.

Question 8.
Name the two most popular folk festivals of Rajasthan.
Two most popular folk festivals of Rajasthan are:

  1. Gangaur and
  2. Teej

Question 9.
Name any four scriptures written by Maharana Kumbha.
Maharana Kumbha’s four creations:

  1. Sangeetraj
  2. Sur Prabandhak
  3. Sangeet Mimansa
  4. Rasikpriya

Question 10.
Name any two creations of the Charan style literature.
Two creations of the Charan style literature are-

  1. Bankidas’ Bankidas-Ri-Khyat
  2. Nainsi’s Nainsi-Ri-Khyat

Question 11.
Why are the Jaisalmer Havelis famous?
The Jaisalmer Havelis are known for their air holes and engravings.

Question 12.
Write any four features of the Kishangarh style paintings.
Four features of Kishangarh style paintings are:

  1. Protruding Chin
  2. Arrow (Arch) shaped eyebrows
  3. Wagtail shaped eyes
  4. Beautiful ponds

Question 13.
Why were Durgs (forts) constructed in Rajasthan?
Forts were constructed in Rajasthan for residence, defence, storage of supply and for the security of people, property, animals and birds at the time of invasion.

Question 14.
What are the storage sources of paintings in Rajasthan?
Sources of paintings in Rajasthan are Pothikhana (Jaipur), Mansingh Pustak Prakash (Jodhpur), Sarswati Bhandar (Udaipur) and museums of local Maharajas and feudals.

Question 15.
Name any two Havelis of Jaisalmer.
Two Havelis of Jaisalmer

  1. Salimsingh Haveli
  2. Patawon-Ki-Haveli

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