RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 15 Natural Vegetation and Soils of India are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 15 Natural Vegetation and Soils of India.
|Chapter Name||Natural Vegetation and Soils of India|
|Number of Questions Solved||63|
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 15 Natural Vegetation and Soils of India
TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
According to National forest policy, what percentage of geographical area of country the forests are necessary:
(a) 22 per cent
(b) 33 per cent
(c) 20 per cent
(d) 23 per cent
The Evergreen forests are found in which rainfall area?
(a) 100 cm
(b) 50 cm
(c) 200 cm
(d) 100 to 150 cm
Indian Forest Research Institute is located in
Who was the leader of the Khejarali movement?
(a) Amrita Devi
(c) Khejari Devi
(d) None of these
Which of the following soils is good for growing cotton?
(a) Alluvial soil
(b) Black soil
(c) Red soil
(d) Laterite soil
In India, black soil is
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Write the names of two areas of Tidal forests.
Two areas of the Tidal forests:
- The Delta regions of Ganga and Brahmaputra.
- The Delta regions of Krishna.
How many types of forests are given as per the Constitution of India?
Three categories of forests are mentioned in the constitution of India:
- State forests
- Community forests
- Personal fbrests.
Where are Evergreen forests found in Rajasthan?
In Rajasthan, evergreen forests are found in Mount Abu region.
What is Bio-diversity?
It means diversity in vegetation and domestic and wildlife found in a natural region.
Short Answer Type Questions
Mention the causes of bio-diversity destruction.
Causes of Bio-diversity destruction are:
- Construction of large dams
- Intensive cultivation
- Necessity of habitat and food for growing population
- Poaching and reckless exploitation of natural resources
Write about the measures of conservation of wildlife.
Need to establish more and more of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves, etc. and also to conduct social forestry scheme and to develop a sense of environmental awareness in the public. There should be total prohibition on hunting.
Describe the things written about environment awareness in ancient time.
Environment awareness is found in India right from the Vedic age. In different ancient texts, importance of environment and their conservation have been discussed. Indian saints have always considered the natural powers to be local deities. In ‘Bhoomi Sukta’ of Atharva Veda and in Yajur Veda it is asked to give respect to environment as gods and goddesses. Purity of water, natural elements mixture, awareness is discussed in Vedic texts. Respect towards trees is depicted in our great epics i.e., Ramayana and Mahabharata. In Puranas, cutting of trees has been described as a punishable offence. The earth has been regarded as the mother.
29 points related to environment conservation of Bishnoi samaj of Rajasthan are important rules of environment conservation.
Write about the major National Parks and Sanctuaries of Rajasthan.
Ranthambhore National Park, Sawai Madhopur National Park and Keoladeo National Park (Bharatpur). The Ranthambhore National Park and Sariska sanctuary are for conservation of tigers. The Keoladeo National Park is included in the list of world heritage sites. Bharatpur Sanctuary is famous for Siberian cranes. Mukundra Hills Sanctuary in Kota and Sariska Sanctuary of Alwar are famous for wildlife
conservation while the National Desert Park of Jaisalmer is famous for wildlife as well as conservation of fossils.
Long Answer Type Questions
Describe the types of forests and their conservation in India.
Types of forests in India
- The Evergreen forests:
Such forests are found in the areas with rainfall more than 200 cm and an average temperature of 24°C. Arunanchal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Western slopes of Western Ghats and Andaman-Nicobar islands are such areas where these forests are found. The main trees are Rubber, Mahogany, Ebony, Bamboo and Gurjan. There is a diversity and intensity of vegetation. The trees are so dense that the sun rays can hardly reach the lower part of the trees. Their height varies between 30 to 45 metres.
- The Monsoon forests:
These forests are found in the areas having rainfall between 100 to 200 cm. They are also called Deciduous forests because they shed leaves in summers. They are found in the lower and outer slopes of Punjab to Assam along Himalayas, leeward slopes of Western Ghat, South part of Eastern Ghat and Chhota Nagpur plateau area. Major trees found here are the Teakwood, Sal, Sheesham, Kusum, Palas, Bamboo, Jarul, Redwood, Aamla, etc. Their woods are used for making furniture, railway sleepers, ships, etc. The trees found in the Monsoon forests are high and dense.
- The Dry Thorny forests:
They are found in the areas with rainfall between 50 to 100 cm. Roots of the trees found here are very large and thick. They are found in the South-West Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Southern Uttar Pradesh of the Northern India and Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, arid parts of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Main trees are Babul, Khejra, Nagfani, Bargad, Keekar, Kair, etc.
- The Desert forests:
They are found in the areas with rainfall less than 50 cm. They are found in the Western Rajasthan, Punjab and Gujarat. The trees found here are Kair, Babul, Khejra, Nagfani, etc.
- The Tidal forests:
They are also called the Swamp forests. They are found mainly in the area where the water is brought by the tides along the sea coast. These areas are the deltas of the rivers Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri.
- The Mountain forests:
These forests are found in the Himalayan region having a height more than 1500 mt and in the Southern India in the areas having height more than 910 mt, as in Nilgiri, Shivoiy, Annamalai, Palnihills, Mahabaleshwar and Panchmadhi. Oak, Chestnut, Deodar, Chic, etc. are some important trees found here.
Conservation of forests in India
The conservation of forests is a necessity to meet the rising demands and to save from environmental hazards.
The first forest policy in India was adopted in 1894. A new forest policy was declared, after independence on 31st May, 1954 specifying that there should be forests on 33% part of land. In 1988, a new forest policy was declared, with three objectives. They are:
- Environmental stability.
- Conservation of plants and wildlife.
- To meet out the basic needs of the common people.
The government is running several programmes and plans in the direction of forest conservation.
The important ones are:
- Social forestry scheme
- Establishment of National Parks and Sanctuaries
- Efforts by the Forest Research Institute of Dehradun and the Central Arid Zone Research Institute of Jodhpur to increase the land under forests and to check the expansion of forests.
In order to encourage the efforts for forest conservation, the Rajasthan government provides different types of awards as Vaniki Pandit Award, Amrita Devi Award, etc. Similar efforts by the other states of India can go a long to promote the programmes for forest conservation in India.
Describe the types of forests and wildlife of Rajasthan.
I. Types of Forests in Rajasthan:
- Sub-tropical Evergreen forests:
They are spread over 32 km around Abu mountains. This area is the most prosperous in view of vegetational diversity. The main trees found here are Bamboos, Siris, Jamun, Mango, Bel, Rohira, etc.
- The Tropical Dry Deciduous forests:
Such types of forests are found mainly in Banswara and Udaipur. The major tree is Dhokda. Other trees are of Tendu, Bamboo, Bargad, Aamla, Karaunda, Neem and Gular. The wood of Dhokda tree is used in different works due to its strength and hardness with elasticity. Bidi from tendu, kattha from khair and toys from Khirni are made.
- The Tropical Thorny Scruby forests:
These forests are found mainly in Bikaner, Sikar, Jodhpur, Ajmer, Jaipur, Jhunjhunu, Nagaur and Dausa districts. The trees found here are dry and with scrubs. Besides the major trees of Khejari, the other trees are Rohira, Ber, Kair, Kantila Babul, etc.
- The Dry Teakwood forests:
These types of forests are found mainly in the districts of Chittore, Udaipur, Baran and Banswara. The teakwood is used for household purpose, furniture, tools and agricultural works. The main teak trees are of Bamboo, Mango, Gular, Tendu, Khair, Salar and Bargad.
- The Mixed Deciduous forests:
These forests are found in Udaipur, Kota, Bundi, Rajsamand, Chittour and Sirohi districts. Main trees found here are of Dhokda, Bargad, Mango, Jamun, Khair and Babul.
- The Dhak or the Salar forests:
They are found in river valleys. Besides Dhak the other trees found here are of Bahera, Gular, Mahua, Karanj, etc.
- The Salar forests:
They are spread in the districts of Udaipur, Rajsamand, Chittaur, Sirohi, Ajmer, Jodhpur, Alwar and Jaipur. The gum and resin are received from the Salar forests and their wood is used for packing and furniture.
II. Wildlife of Rajasthan:
The animals which live in natural habitat are a part of wildlife. The main animals of Rajasthan are tigers, panthers, cheetals, sambhars, chinkaras, black deer, wolves, bears, jackals, etc. Chinkara is the state animal of forest while camel is the state animal. There are about 22 wildlife sanctuaries in the state. Main national parks of Rajasthan are Ranthambhore National park.
Sawai Madhopur National Park and Keoladeo National Park. Bharatpur is a famous wildlife sanctuary. Other parks of national importance are the National Desert Park, Jaisalmer, Sariska Sanctuary and Daral (Darrah) Sanctuary. The Ranthambhore National Park and Sariska Sanctuary are for the conservation of tigers. Keoladeo National Park and Bharatpur Sanctuary are famous for Siberian cranes. The National Desert Park of Jaisalmer is famous for wildlife as well as conservation of fossils.
Describe in brief the soils of Rajasthan.
Soil is the topmost gift of nature. It is the great asset of farmers. The whole agricultural production depends upon it. Rajasthan is an agriculture-based state
and the supplementary occupation of people beside agriculture is animal rearing. It also increases the importance of soil.
Variation in natural environment gives birth to different types of soils. Climate, vegetation, time are the factors responsible for soil formation. Parent Rock, water, air and humus are four main components of soil.
Soil is a mixture of solid, liquid and gases which, is a result of inter-reaction among weathering of rocks, climate, plants and bacterias.
Types of soil found in Rajasthan: On the basis of colour, texture and fertility soils of Rajasthan is classified in five types.
- Desert soil
(a) It is found in western Rajasthan in Jallore, Badurer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Churn, Jhunjhunu, Nagaur, etc.
(b) It is less fertile.
(c) The main factor responsible for its formation is physical weathering. It is transferred due to wind from one place to another. It is saline and less holding capacity of water in it.
- Red-Yellow soil
(a) It is found in western part of Sawai Madhopur, Sirohi, Bhilwara, Rajsamand and Udaipur.
(b) It is less fertile.
(c) It is formed due to disintegration of granite sheets and rocks.
(d) It lacks in lime and nitrogen.
(e) Due presence of iron it is red and yellow in colour.
(f) It is food for growing groundnut and cotton.
- Laterite soil
(a) It is found in East part of Banswara, Udaipur, Chittorgarh and Bhilwara.
(b) It is fertile, but lacks in lime, nitrogen and phosphorous and rich in potash and chica.
(c) It is useful for growing cotton, sugarcane and maize.
- Black soil
(a) It is found in south Eastern part of Rajasthan in Kota, Bundi, Baran and Jhalawar.
(b) It is domat soil rich in chica.
(c) It lacks in nitrogen but rich in potash and calcium.
(d) It is fertile and good for growing cash crops like sugarcane, cotton, rice and soyabeen.
- Loamy soil
(a) It is found in North-Eastern part of Rajasthan in Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karauli, Dausa, Sawai Madhopur, Jaipur, Tonk, etc.
(b) It is light red and brown in colour. It is sandy domatile.
(c) It is fertile.
(d) Rich in potash, iron, phosphorus lime and lacks in nitrogen.
(e) It is good for growing wheat, mustard, tobacco, etc.
Mark and label the following on an outline map of India.
- Evergreen forest area
- Tidal forest area
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
The list of endangered animals is published in
(a) Red Data Book
(b) Blue Data Book
(c) Black Data Book
(d) Yellow Data book
Bharatpur is famous for the
(a) Bird sanctuary
(b) Tiger resort
(c) Lion resort
(d) Conservation of fossils
Deciduous forests is another name for the
(a) Evergreen forests
(b) Desert forests
(c) Tidal forests
(d) Monsoon forests
‘Dhokda’ is the major tree found in
(a) Jodhpur and Barmer
(b) Banswara and Udaipur
(c) Kota and Bundi
(d) Jaipur and Sikar
The first forest policy in India was adopted in
The Forest Research Institute is in
(d) None of the above
The type of forests found in the areas with less than 50 cm rainfall are:
(a) Dry thorny forests
(b) Evergreen forests
(c) Tidal forests
(d) Desert forests
It is not one of the divisions of the natural vegetation:
(c) Wild animals
Indian culture is also known as the
(a) Arnaya culture
(b) Vinaya culture :
(c) Yagvalkya culture
(d) Pauranic culture
In which of the following states is black soil found?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
Black cotton soil is also known as
(a) Alluvial soil
(b) Saline soil
(c) Marshy soil
(d) Regur soil
How can the alluvial soil be classified on the basis of age?
(a) Bhangar and khadar
(b) Fertile and non-fertile
(c) Khadar and bhadar
(d) Bhadar and regur
Which one of the soil types is the most widespread and important soil in India?
(a) Laterite soils
(b) Black soils
(c) Alluvial soils
(d) Red and yellow soils
Which soil covers the largest part of India?
(a) Red and Black soils
(b) Laterite soils
(c) Yellow soils
(d) Alluvial soils
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which national park of Rajasthan is included in the list of world heritage sites?
The Keoladeo National Park of Rajasthan is included in the list of the world heritage sites.
Which is the state bird of Rajasthan?
Godawan is the state bird of Rajasthan.
Which Natural power is regarded as the mother in our National song?
“Earth’ is regarded as the mother in our national song, “Vande Mataram’.
Which international organisation is working for the conservation of bio¬diversity and where is its headquarter?
IUCN is working at the international level for the conservation of bio¬diversity, with its headquarter at Switzerland.
Name a few awards being provided by the Rajasthan government for the conservation of forests.
The Rajasthan governments provided these awards for the forest conservation programmes – Vaniki Pandit award, Amrita Devi award, Vriksha Mitra award, Vriksha Vardhak award, etc.
How much area of Rajasthan is covered with different types of vegetations?
About 34610 sq. km area of Rajasthan is covered with different types of vegetation. It is about 10.12% of the total area of the state.
What is another name for the Tidal forests?
The tidal forests are also called the Swamp forests.
Why are the Monsoon forests also known as the Deciduous forests?
The Monsoon forests are also known as the Deciduous forests because they shed their leaves in summers.
What are the uses of teakwood?
The teakwood is used for household works, furniture, tools and agriculture.
Short Answer Type Questions
Give the classification of forests in Rajasthan.
Classification of forests in Rajasthan:
- The Sub-Tropical Evergreen Forests
- The Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests
- The Tropical Thorny Forests
- The Dry Teakwood Forests
- The Mixed Deciduous Forests
- The Palas Forests
- The Salar Forests
What are the adverse effects of loss of biodiversity?
Effects of loss of biodiversity:
- Hole in ozone layer
- Rise in temperature, i.e., global warming
- Decrease in rainfall
- Likelihood of floods and droughts
- Problem of pollution
- Expansion of desert belt
Name the research institutions working in our country for the conservation of biodiversity.
Major research institutions working in our country for the conservation of bio-diversity are: Indian Forest Research Institute, Dehradun; Indian Botanical Garden, Kolkata; Ecological Research Institute, Bengaluru; National Environmental Engineering Institute, Nagpur; etc.
What do you understand by the endangered animals? Name some of them.
The animal species which are in danger of getting extinct, are called the endangered animals. Some of them are lions, panthers, elephants, alligators, rhinoceros, Kasturi, deer, etc.
Cite the examples of environmental awareness in our country.
A few examples of environmental awareness in India are the Khejarli movement, the Chipko movement, the Appico movement, the Silent Valley movement and Save Narmada movement.
Write about the Khejarli Sacrifice movement in Rajasthan.
The Khejari tree is considered the Kalpvraksha of Thar. On 28th August, 1730 the Maharaja of Jodhpur ordered to cut the Khejari trees in the village Khejrali. It was opposed by the villagers under the leadership of Amrita Devi. She sacrificed her life for the protection of the Khejari trees. About 363 villagers gave up their lives. This event is said to be the Khejarli Sacrifice movement. A monument has been constructed in the memory of martyrs of Khejarli village, where the Vriksh Sahid Mela (fair) is organised every year. In the memory of Amrita Devi, the Black Deer Sanctuary has been established in Jodhpur. The state government gives Amrita Devi Awards every year in the field of awareness for environmental conservation.
Name the biosphere reserve areas for conservation of wildlife in our country
There are 18 biosphere reserves established for the conservation of wildlife in our country.
Biosphere Reserves in India
1. Rann of Kachchh
3. Gulf of Mannar
|4. Cold Desert||
5. Nanda Devi
Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka
9. Seshachalam Hills
11. Achanakamar Amarkantak
Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh
|Kerala, Tamil Nadu|
|15. Great Nicobar||
Andaman and Nicobar islands
Write about the National Parks and Sanctuaries of India.
There are 537 Wildlife Sanctuaries and 166 National Parks established in India for the conservation of wildlife. Two National Parks namely Kaziranga of Assam and Keoladeo of Rajasthan have been recognised as the world heritage sites. The important, National Parks of India are Jim Corbett (Uttarakhand), Kanha (Madhya Pradesh), Kaziranga (Assam), Bandipur (Karnataka) Palamau (Bihar), Dachigam (Jaramu- Kashmir), Sunderban (West Bengal), Silent Valley (Kerala), Nandar Kanan (Odisha), Keoladeo (Rajasthan), Kaibul Lamjae (Manipur), Annamalai (Tamil Nadu), etc.
What does natural vegetation imply?
Natural vegetation includes forests, grasses and scrubs. Most important of them are the forests. They are that part of the vegetation where vast groups of plants and trees are found. According to the National forest policy of India, 33% of geographical area of the country must be having the forests. There are temperate and. the tropical forests in India with variations in the states as well as in the country due to variations in the natural environment.
What is soil?
Soil is the loose covering of fine rock particles that covers the surface of the earth. It consists of weathered particles of rocks brought down by wind, water and glaciers. It also includes decaying organic matter (humus) and minerals. It varies in texture and fertility. It takes a very long time to form.
Distinguish between Regur soils and Laterite soils.
|1. These soils are black in colour and are called Black soils.
2. These are fertile soils,suitable for cultivation of cotton.
3. These soils are formed by accumulation and weathering of lava.
4. These soils are found in Deccan trap (Maharashtra).
|1. These are yellow in colour.
2. These are less fertile soils.
3. These soils have been formed by leaching of soils in tropical areas.
4. These are found over low plateau in Bihar and Jharkhand.
Point out any three distinctions between Bhangar soils and Khadar soils.
- The older alluvium of plains is called Bhangar and the younger alluvium of plains is called Khadar.
- The Bhangar soils is composed of calcareous, kanker and clay and Khadar soils is composed of fertile alluvium.
- The area with Bhangar soils stands above the level of the plains whereas in case of Khadar soils, flood water spreads a new layer over it every year.
Describe the main characteristics of Red and Yellow soils.
- Red and yellow soils develop on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan Plateau.
- They are also found in parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the predmont zone of the Western Ghats.
- They develop a red colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
- They look yellow in hydrated form.
- They are poor in lime, nitrogen and humus.
- They are used in cultivation of millets, pulses, linseed and tobacco.
Mention any four characteristics of Black soil.
- Black soils are made up of extremely fine, i.e., clayey material.
- They are well known for their capacity to hold moisture. In addition they are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. They are generally poor in phosphoric contents.
- These soils are black and are also known as regur soils. As black soil is ideal for growing cotton, it is also known as black cotton soil.
- These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.
They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
Write some measures for conservation of wildlife.
Measures for conservation of wildlife:
- Ban on hunting (poaching)
- Availability of natural habitat
- Formation of wildlife conservation laws and their strict implementation
- Establishment of National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries
- Public awareness and their active participation
Discuss the importance of forests.
Forests are important to us in a number of ways:
- Forests provide us with plenty of useful products, out of which, wood is the most important. Trees provide hardwood for making doors, windows, furniture and other various products like plywood, packing boxes and matchsticks. It is a major raw material to make paper and newsprint.
- The forests also yield a host of other products such as lac, resins, gums, fruits, medicinal herbs, dyes, honey, cellulose, grasses and leaves.
- They prevent soil erosion by binding the soil with tree roots. Hence, floods are also controlled.
- They provide natural habitat for wildlife.
- They play an important role in maintaining the ecological balance, by absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen.
- Forests increase the moisture content in the air.
Therefore, we need to conserve our forests.
Long Answer Type Questions
Throw light on the forest policy of India and the conservation of vegetation.
Forests are the basis of life. Reckless destruction of forests in our country has affected adversely the climate and landscape, e.g. soil erosion, extension of desert, occurrence of floods, increase in wasteland, irregularity in climate, drought, fall in the level of underground water, loss of wildlife, environmental pollution, etc. The forests are being cleared to obtain more space for human habitation, agriculture and industries. Hence, it is compulsory to save and conserve forests to overcome the environmental hazards.
The first forest policy in India was adopted in 1894. A new forest policy was declared on 31st May, 1954 after independence, specifying that there should be forests on 33% of land area.
In 1988, a new forest policy was declared with three aims:
- Environmental stability.
- Conservation of plants and wildlife, and
- To meet the basic needs of the common people.
Besides the government is running various programmes and plans for the forest conservation. Social Forestry Scheme, Establishment of National Parks and Sanctuaries are some of them. The Forest Research Institute, Dehradun and the Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur are making efforts to increase the land under forests and to check the expansion of deserts.
Different types of forest awards are given by the government of Rajasthan in order to encourage the efforts of forest conservation like Vaniki Pandit Award, Amrita Devi Award, Vriksha Vardhak Award, Vriksha Mitra Award, etc.
What is bio-diversity? Write about the conservation of bio-diversity in India.
Abundance of diversities in vegetation and domestic and wild life in any natural region means bio-diversity.
India has 40% of the world’s bio¬diversities. There are about 81,000 animal and 45,000 vegetation species in India. The biodiversity is very important for the formation and consistency of nature. The environmental balance is maintained by plants and animals. Any sort of destruction of organism may be dangerous for nature and environment. The bio-diversity is being adversely affected, mainly due to the construction of large dams, industrialization, intensive cultivation, necessity of habitat and food for increasing population.
Loss of bio-diversity gives rise to many adverse situations as hole in ozone layer, increase in temperature, fall in rainfall, floods, droughts, pollution, expansion of deserts, etc. IUCN is working at the international level for the conservation of biodiversity. Its headquarter is at Switzerland.
It has become very essential to work for the conservation of biodiversity. Efforts are being made in our country to conserve it by developing National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserves areas, etc. Major of them are the Indian Forest Research Institute at Dehradun; Indian Botanical Garden, Kolkata; Ecological Research Institute, Bangaluru, and National Environmental Institute, Nagpur; etc.
Which is the most widespread and important soil of India? State any six characteristics of this type of soil.
Alluvial soil is the most widespread and important soil of India.
Its characteristics are:
- Alluvial soils are very fertile. Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereals and pulse crops.
- Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and irrigation.
- The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay.
- Alluvial soil particles appear some what bigger in size in the inlands towards the river valleys. In the upper reaches of the river valley, the soils are coarse. Such soils are more common in piedmont plains such as Duars, Chos and Terai.
- Alluvial soils are also described on the basis of their age. According to their age, alluvial soils can be classified as Old Alluvial (Bangar) and New Alluvial (Khadar). The Bangar soil has higher concentration of Kanker nodules than the Khadar. It has more fine particles and is more fertile than the Bangar.
- Alluvial soils are transported soils. Most of these soils are derived from the sediments deposited by the rivers. In the entire northern plains the soils are deposited by the three important river systems- the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.
Classify the soils of India. Write the characteristics of the Arid soils and the Forest soils.
The classification of soils is based on origin, colour, composition, texture and location.
- Alluvial soil:
It is a fertile soil formed by the depositional action of rivers. Rivers transport eroded material from their higher reaches and deposit this material on their banks as they reach the plains. This rich fertile alluvial soil supports agriculture. This soil is found in the vast Indo-Gangetic Plains and the deltaic regions of the peninsular belt.
- Black soil:
It is also known as regur soil. It is found in and around lava plateaus. This deep and clayey soil swells when it is wet and contracts when dry. Hence, it develops wide cracks during summers. It is good for growing cotton. In India, it is found in the basaltic Deccan Plateau in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, parts of Gujarat and Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. This soil is also considered good for growing cereals, pulses, oil seeds and sugarcane.
- Red soil:
It is sandy and red in colour. It looks red due to the presence of iron oxides. In this lowlands the are normally fertile but in the dry uplands they are less fertile. It is suitable for the growth of millets, wheat, onions, potatoes, etc. It is also good for growing cotton. In India, it is found in Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
- Laterite soil:
This soil is formed in regions with heavy rainfall. It is not naturally fertile as the top soil along with the humus is washed away by heavy rainfall. To make this soil cultivable it has to be treated with fertilisers. It is used for growing jute, millets, fodder crop, etc. It is also useful for making bricks. In India, it’is found in Maharashtra and West Bengal.
- Arid soil:
It is also called sandy soil. It is found in dry regions. The colour of this soil varies from dark shades of reddish and humus content as it is found in the dry deserts. In India. It is found in Western Rajasthan.
- Peaty and forest soil:
This soil is found in the regions where there is dense vegetation. It is rich in humus as the organic matter that accumulates in the forests decomposes to provide the same. In India, this soil is found in Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Bihar and the evergreen forests of the Western Ghats.
Write a note on wildlife of India.
In India many types of animals are found. Here approximately 75,000 species of animals are found among them 350 mammals, 1,313 birds, 408 reptiles, 197 amphibians, 2,546 fishes, 50,000 insects, 4,000 Molusca and rest non-vertebrates. It is 13% of world’s total.
The elephant is an important mammal. They are found in Assam, Karnataka and Kerala in hot humid forests (evergreen). One-horned rhino lives in marshy area of West Bengal and Assam; wild ass and camels live in Thar desert and Rann of Kachchh.
Indian buffaloes, cows, ox, nilgai, horses, chausingha (small deer) and variety of species of deer are some animals found in India. Many species of monkeys are also found here.
The natural habitat of Indian lions is Gir forest in Gujarat. Tigers are found in the forest of Jharkhand, Sunderban of West Bengal and Himalayan region.
Animals living in Himalayan region are strong enough to survive in harsh cold climate. In the ice-covered mountains of Ladakh, Yak is found which looks like an ox with curved-horns. Tibetian Barahsinga, Bharal, red panda are found here in some parts.
In rivers, lakes and oceanic region tortoises, crocodiles and alligators are found.
In India, many colourful birds are found. Among them peacocks, ducks, parrots, mainas, cranes, ostrich, owls, crows and pigeons are common species of birds which live in humid parts and forests.
Describe the natural vegetation of Rajasthan.
About 10.12% of the total area (34,610 sq km) of Rajasthan has vegetations due to variations in climate, soil, location of land, etc. It has 3.83% forest cover which is less than whole India’s per individual forest cover 0.13 hectare. Three types of natural vegetation is found here. i.e., forests, grasses and scrubs (desert vegetation).
The classification and distribution of forests in Rajasthan:
- Tropical thorny forests mainly in Bikaner, Sikar, Jodhpur, Ajmer, Jaipur, Jhujhunu, Nagaur and Dausa districts. The trees are khejari, rohira, her, kair, kantila babul, etc.
- Tropical dry deciduous forests are found mainly in Banswara and Udaipur. The major tree is Dhokda known for its strength and hardness with elasticity. Other trees are tendu, bamboo, bargad, amla, karaunda, neem and glar. Bidi, kattha and toys are made from tendu, khair and khirni respectively.
Further, they are divided into seven sub-types:
(a) Dry teakwood forests:
These forests are found in 250-450 mt height. As teak is found in abundance they are named teakwood forests. They are extended in districts of Udaipur, Banswar, Jhalawar, Chittorgarh and Bar an. Teak is found in 50%-75%. Other trees are Tendu, Dhavda, Gurjan, Gondal, Khair, Semai, Reetta, Baheda and Tamarind (Imli). Toys are made of Tendu, Khair and Khirni. The teak cannot bear fog, hence found most in Southern Rajasthan. Its wood is used to manufacture tools and buildings.
(b) Salar forests:
These forests are found at 450 mt mountainous area. They are spread in the districts of Udaipur, Rajsamand, Chittore, Sirohi, Ajmer, Jodhpur, Alwar, Jaipur, etc. Wood is used in packing and furniture as well as gum and resin are received from Salar forests. Salar Dhok,
Katheera and Dhaved are main trees of this area. Due to abundance of Salar trees, they are called Salar forests.
(c) Bamboo forests:
Due to abundance of Bamboo trees, they are called Bamboo forests. They are found in those regions of Rajasthan where rainfall is more. They are found in Banswara, Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Baran, Kota and Sirohi districts of Rajasthan. Other trees are Dhakda, Teak, Dhokda, etc.
(d) Dhokda forests or Mixed Deciduous forests:
Except desert region they are found in most of the regions of Rajasthan as environment other than desert region is suitable. Hence, they are the most extended forests in Rajasthan. They are found at 240-760 mt height. It is also known as Dhok and found in Kota, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, Jaipur, Alwar, Ajmer, Udaipur, Rajsamand and Chittorgarh district of Rajasthan. These forests are included in main forest wealth of state. The wood of Dhok is very strong, it is converted into coal by burning. The other trees are Palash, Adusa, Jhadber, Arunj, Khair and Khirni, etc.
(e) Palash Forests:
They are found in hard and rocky region where soil is found less. Main trees are Dhak, Bahera, Gular, Mahua, Karanj, etc.
(f) Khair Forests:
They are spread in southern plateau region in districts of Jhalawar, Kota, Baran, Chittorgarh and Sawai Madhopur. Trees found here are Ber, Dhokda and Arjun.
(g) Babool Forests:
They are found in districts of Ganganagar, Bikaner, Nagaur, Jallore, Alwar and Bharatpur. Where less moisture is found their number decreases but as the moisture increases their number also increases.
We hope the given RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 15 Natural Vegetation and Soils of India will help you. If you have any query regarding Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 15 Natural Vegetation and Soils of India, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.