RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 4 Social Reforms and Religious Renaissance

RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 4 Social Reforms and Religious Renaissance are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 4 Social Reforms and Religious Renaissance.

Board RBSE
Textbook SIERT, Rajasthan
Class Class 9
Subject Social Science
Chapter Chapter 4
Chapter Name Social Reforms and Religious Renaissance
Number of Questions Solved 53
Category RBSE Solutions

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 4 Social Reforms and Religious Renaissance

TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

Question 1.
Who founded the Ary a Samaj?
(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(b) Keshav Chandra Sen
(c) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
(d) Devendra Nath Tagore
Answer:
(c).

Question 2.
Who is known as the pioneer of the 19th century Indian renaissance?
(a) Swami Vivekanand
(b) Swami Dayanand
(c) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
(d) Saraswati Keshab Chandra Sen
Answer:
(d).

Question 3.
Who published Samvad Kaumudi?
(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(b) Swami Vivekanand
(c) Ramakrishna Paramhans
(d) Devendra Nath Tagore
Answer:
(a).

Question 4.
When was Brahmo Samaj founded?
(a) in 1862
(b) in 1828
(c) in 1875
(d) in 1893
Answer:
(b).

Question 5.
The childhood name of Swami Dayanand Saraswati was:
(a) Narendranath Dutt
(b) Moolshankar
(c) Jatashankar
(d) Bhawanishankar
Answer:
(b).

Question 6.
Who is the founder of Anuvrat movement?
(a) Dayanand Saraswati
(b) Vivekanand
(c) Keshav Chandra Sen
(d) Aacharya Tulsi
Answer:
(d).

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When was Swami Vivekananda bom?
Answer:
He was born on 12 January, 1863.

Question 2.
Where was Swami Dayanand Saraswati bom?
Answer:
He was bom in Tankara district in Morbi region’of Gujarat.

Question 3.
Who founded Adi Brahmo Samaj?
Answer:
Devendra Nath Tagore

Question 4.
Where did Swami Dayanand breath his last?
Answer:
Ajmer (Rajasthan).

Question 5.
When was the law against Sati Pratha passed?
Answer:
1829 AD.

Question 6.
Who started Anuvrat movement? .
Answer:
Aacharya Tulsi

Question 7.
What is the meaning of Anuvrat?
Answer:
Anu means small and Vrat means Niyam law (niyam), so the meaning of Anuvrat is small laws of morality.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What do you understand by Shuddhi movement?
Answer:
Shuddhi movement was a movement started by Dayanand Saraswati by which the non-Hindus and untouchables could be converted back to Hinduism who adopted some other religion due to any reason by making them Shuddh with vedic sacramental rituals.

Question 2.
Who was Ramakrishna Paramhansa?
Answer:
He was a priest of Kali temple at Dakshineshwar in Calcutta. Without any formal education either eastern or western, this great saint attained the Supreme realization by Yogic disciplines and mediation and by unbounded faith and devotion. He was the guru of Swami Vivekanand.

Question 3.
Give the contribution of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in National movement.
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was considered the father of Indian Nationalism. His political reform movement was considered the early Indian National Congress. He was in favour of Western education. By studying it, Indians came across the philosophy of Europe and a feeling of Nationalism arose in them. The Brahmo Samaj opened a new era for the Indian people by proclaiming the principles of Individual freedom and national unity. Solidarity and Democratization were the first principles emphazized by Ram Mohan Ray who organized expressions of the national awakening.

Question 4.
Write about the early life of Vivekananda.
Answer:
Swami Vivekananda was born on 12th January 1863 in Vishvanath Dutt’s family in Bengal. His childhood name was Narendra Dutt. He had great impact of his mother Bhuvneshwari Devi on him. Vivekanand had great interest in spritualism right from beginning. He introduced Indian culture, religion and society to the world in 1881. He met Guru Ramkrishna Paramhansa in Dakshineshwar. He realized a feeling of God, then onwards he became the follower of Ramkrishna.

Question 5.
Give the main objectives of Arya Samaj.
Answer:
1. Stress on truth of Vedas
2. Doing yajanas and chanting mantras according to Vedic method
3. Stress on accepting truth
4. Opposing old faiths, idolatry and incarnationism

Question 6.
What is Anuvrata movement?
Answer:
Anuvrat movement is purely a non-violent movement for human welfare. It is a movement of morality which is not related to any of the religions or sects. The father of this movement as Aacharya Tulsi of Jain Terapanath Union. Any person of any religion, society or caste may follow Anuvarat. This movement opposed casteism, communalism, untouchability and honoured/womanhood. This is a movement to strengthen and develop character and morality in the country, Acharya Tulsi expressed the importance of Anuvrata to awake people towards their duties and a call was made through the reading of rules and vratas of Anuvrata. He explained 75 rules in it. He compared these small rules with Anu (Atom) and gave its usefulness. Just after this speech 71 people took pledge to become Anuvrati. These vratas apply on every common people of society.

Question 7.
Describe the social reforms done by Brahmo Samaj.
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy established the Brahma Samaj on 20 August, 1829. This Samaj tried to prevent the influence of Christian religion in India. It opposed untouchability, child marriage, polygamy, intoxication, idol worship and Sati pratha. It was in favour of widow marriage. Brahmo Samaj got the law passed against Sati pratha and this custom was declared illegal. Besides it, Brahmo Samaj was in favour of widow marriage. It believed in the principles of Karma, and opposed idol worship, casteism and animal sacrifice.

Question 8.
Discuss the role of Swami Dayanand Saraswati in National movement.
Answer:
The Aiya Samaj embodied a spirit of intense partriotism. It remained in forefront of national movement and produced leaders of eminence. He taught use of swadeshi and boycotted foreign goods. He said Swarajya is better than foreign rule, though it has evils. His dream was to unite India socially, religiously and nationally. His motive was “Go back to Vedas”.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give the causes of Indian renaissance of 19th century.
Answer:
Causes of Indian renaissance of 19th century are:

  1. Religious causes:
    In the 18th and 19th century, Indian religions and society was dominated by orthodoxy. Indian society was divided into many castes and sub¬castes. Christian and Muslim missionaries took advantage of this situation and started converting people into their own religion.
    Then Hindu missionaries became aware and thought that religious evils which entered Hinduism or Hindu religion, should be stopped. Hence, reformers lit a new inspiration among country people. All this caused a new pride to be born in the hearts of the people of India regarding ancient glory and ideals. It gave impetus to national movement.
  2. Spread of western education:
    During the British rule in India, spread of western education took place. It gave opportunity to Indians to study thought of the western philosophers and intellectuals.
  3. Propagation of Christianity:
    Activeness of Christian missionaries created a great reaction in Indians, and they put efforts to remove socio-religious evils and bringing awareness.
  4. Literature:
    Books, magazines and newspapers gave birth to National feelings. Among * them Anand Math, Samvad Kaumudi and Shivaji (a Marathi novel) are main.
  5. Printing Press and printing material:
    Due to establishment of Printing press in India, newspapers and magazines in English were published up to 1875. They make Indians equipped with social evils.
  6. Wave of Buddhist philosophy in Europe:
    During this period, a wave of Buddha philosophy was prevailing in Europe. In this stress was given on independent thinking. Indians also adopted the same and introduced Indian knowledge and culture to Europeans.
  7. Influence of foreign scholars:
    William John and Maxmuller translated the Indian scriptures in English. Indians and Europeans took inspiration from these glorious past of India.
  8. In the mid of 19th century Calcutta Hindu College Established:
    In the mid of 19th century, Calcutta Hindu College was established in Bengal, it became the medium of change among Indians. In this, thought of European professor Dezoreo was important.
  9. Birth of socio-religious reformers:
    Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Swami Vivekananda, Keshav Chandra- Sen, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Jyotiba Phule, etc. took birth in Indian Society. These reforms awakened a new wave among Indian religions and society.

Question 2.
Describe the life and teachings of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the first social reformer of modern India, was born on 22nd May, 1772 in Radha Nagar of Hoogly district of Bengal. He had knowledge of Arabian, Sanskrit, Persian, Bengali, Latin, Greek, Hebrew languages. He had great impact of Western thought on him. He was against orthodoxy, religious rites and rituals that existed in Hindu religion. He gave message to remove them. He was against the Sati pratha, casteism, etc.
By watching the wife of his elder brother who followed the Sati pratha, he was very sad. With the help of Lord William Bentinck, the British Governor General, a law against Sati pratha was formed and passed in 1829. According to this law Sati pratha was illegal. He was against child marriage, polygamy, untouchability, liquor, etc. He was in favour of western education in India’s Schools and Hindu Colleges also. He published Samvad Kaumudi in Bengal, Miratual newspaper in Persian and a Brahamnical magazine in English. He breathed his last in Bristol city of England in 1833.
After his death, Brahmo Samaj was divided into two parts :

  1. Adi Brahmo Samaj by Devendra Nath Tagore and
  2. Bharatiya Brahmo Samaj by Keshav Chandra Sen.

Important teachings of Raja Ram Mohan Roy/Brahmo Samaj:

  1. God is one, he is the creator of universe, observer, eternal (Anadi) and formless.
  2. Worship of God should be done spiritually without any discrimination.
  3. Moksha, Mukti or Salvation can be achieved by confessing sins and discarding evil attitude.
  4. Soul is immortal. It is responsible or accountable to God.
  5. All are equal before God. He accepts the prayers of all equally.
  6. Prayers are must for spiritual progress.
  7. Everyone must believe in the principles of work.
  8. All the people must have belief in truth.

Question 3.
Describe the life and principles of Swami Dayanand Saraswati.
Answer:
Founder of Arya Samaj Swami Dayanand Saraswati was born in 1824 in the Tankara district in Morvi region of Gujarat, in a conservative Brahmin family. His childhood name was Moolshankar. He left home at the age of 12 after watching a mouse eating “Prasad’ offered to Lord Shiva and thereby losing faith in idol worship. He acquired knowledge of Vedas from Guru Virjanand at Mathura in 1860. The Guru said to him ‘Live and teach Vedas’.

He was the first man who accepted Hindi as national language and made Swaraj his base of working. From 1864, he started preaching all around. His objective was to remove socio-religious evils from Hindu religion and society. He had great devotion in ancient vedas, culture and dharma. He created famous scripture Satyarth Prakash in “his Udaipur abode. He established Aiya Samaj on 10th April, 1875. He died on 30 October, 1883.
Principles of Arya Samaj:

  1. Stress on truth of Vedas
  2. Doing Yajanas and Chanting mantras according to Vedic method
  3. Stress on accepting truth
  4. Opposing old faiths, idolatry and incarnationism.
  5. Encouragement to women education and widow-remarriage.
  6. God is supreme, formless and eternal.
  7. Stress on good behaviour according to religion and love.
  8. Giving importance to Hindi and Sanskrit and spread these languages.
  9. Emphasising on progress of individual in progress of all and welfare.
  10. Criticizing social evils that prevailed in the society. He collected favour of common people to eliminate them.
  11. Opposing untouchability, child marriage, female foeticide, purdah system, idolism, orthodoxy and rituals.
  12. Believing in Shuddhi movement.

Question 4.
Write an essay on Anuurat movement (Aandolan).
Answer:
India became independent on 15 August 1947 after a long independence movement. The Independence circulated the new ‘aspirations’ in people, but news coming of new origin were full of worries. By watching violence, communalism, tension anti¬social environment, the soul of 9th Aacharya of Terapanthi cult, Aachaiya Tulsi, was sad. By realizing this situation he realized his duty, and committed to change this society and set out in a new direction.

Aacharya Tulsi was born in Ladnu, district Nagaur of Rajasthan on Kartik Shukla Dvitiya Vikram Samwat 1971. His father’s name was Jhoomarmal Khated (Oswal) and mother’s name was Vadnay. When he was of 11 years, he took Deeksha from the hands of Kalugani Ashtamacharya of Terapanth. He became the Sanghachaiya of Terapanth at the age of 22 years. He took many revolutionary steps through the medium of Sangh.

  1. Preksha Dhyan
  2. Jeevan Vigyan and
  3. Anuvrata Aandolan are three main steps.

This commitment to give a new direction to Independent India he made on 1 March 1949 in presence of 10 thousand listeners at Sandar Shahan (Churu). This revolt of him called as Anuvrat Vichar Kranti. It was in the context of Navsanchar and under it, he expressed the importance of Anuvrata to awake people towards their duties and a call was made through the reading of rules and vratas of Anuvrata. He explained 75 rules. He compared these small rules with Anu (Atom) and gave its usefulness. Just after the speech 71 people took pledge to become Anuvrati.
These vratas apply on every common people of society whether doctors, engineers, students, advocates, politicians, industrialists, teachers, traders, * etc. because motive of these was to perform duties according to their work truely in behaviour. Aacharya Tulsi died on 23 June 1997.
It is code of conduct of Anuvrata

  1. I will not kill any innocent living being.
    (a) I will not commit suicide.
    (b) I will not commit foeticide.
  2.  I will not attack.
    (a) not favour any aggressive policies.
    (b) Support to keep peace in world and disarmament.
  3. I will not take part in any violent activities. ,
  4. I will believe in unity of humanity. .
    Not discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, colour as high and low.
    Not believe in untouchability.
  5. I will give respect to all religions equally and keep religious tolerance.
    (a) Not spread communal aggression.
  6. I will be certified in field of business and trade.
    I will not make loss of others for my profit.
  7. I will keep the limit of Brahmachaiya and Sangrah.
  8. I will not behave immorally in relations of elections.
  9. I will not give shelter to social evils.
  10. I will lead an addiction-free life.
    (a) Not use drugs like wine or liquor, ganja, charas, heroin, bhang, tobacco, etc.
  11. I shall be aware of environmental problem.
    Not cut green trees
    (a) Not do extravagance of water and electricity
    To follow these properly, Anuvratas is compulsory for an Anuvrati. In whole nation Anuvrat Samities are working for its spread and preach. There are lots of Anuvraties who are actively spreading morality, peace, co-existence, and brotherhood in the country.

Question 5.
Give the contribution of Vivekananda in Indian society, religion (dharma) and national movement.
Answer:
Swami Vivekananda introduced Indian culture, religion and society to the world in 1881. He had three tasks in front:

  1. To explain religion in such a way that it would be universally accepted.
  2. To revive the Hindu religion and restore its dignity in Hindus again.
  3. To create a feeling of self-dignity in Hindus.

The explanation of religion which Swamiji did was- “Religion is the development of the presence of God inside man. It is neither present in books nor in religious principles, it lives only in feelingness.”
He toured different places of India in 1891, and felt poverty and pitiable condition of Indians. He got a chance to take part in Vishva Dharma Sammelan at Chicago (America). After crossing many difficulties, he reached there and made realize the world that any work of the world is out of the reach of India. No other country of the world is rich intellectually, religiously, spiritually and philosophically as India. He was philosopher of Vedanta.

According to him, Vedanta awakens our will-power. He stressed on eradication of and difficulties of poverty and to help orphans. He nurtured the Indian nationality and stress on worshipping Mother India. He inspired youth to sacrifice for their motherland.
He established Belur Math in Calcutta on 5 May 1897 to spread the teaching of his guru Ramakrishna Paramhansa. It is also called as Ramakrishna mission. Its branches are spread nationally and internationally.
He advocated the service of mankind. He was against orthodoxy, illiteracy, untouchability, class distinction, etc. He promoted the feeling of people’s welfare.

ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

Question 1.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was bom in
(a) 1772 AD
(b) 1773 AD
(c) 1774 AD
(d) 1776 AD
Answer:
(a).

Question 2
“Weakness is a sin, it is death and fear is the greatest disease”- Who said it?
(a) Swami Vivekanand
(b) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
(c) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(d) Ramakrishna Paramhansa
Answer:
(a).

Question 3.
Who was the writer of Satyarth Prakash?
(a) Romain Rolland
(b) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
(c) Lala Hansraj
(d) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Answer:
(b).

Question 4.
In 1893, the Sarua Dharma Sammelan was held at:
(a) Chicago
(b) New York
(c) Washington
(d) California
Answer:
(a).

Question 5.
Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayanand in
(a) 1885 AD
(b) 1875 AD
(c) 1978 AD
(d) 1985 AD
Answer:
(b).

Question 6.
Go and teach Vedas’ said Swami Virjanand to
(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(b) Swami Vivekanand
(c) Ramakrishna Paramhansa
(d) Swami Dayanand Saraswati
Answer:
(d).

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which scripture was written in Hindi by Swami Dayanand Saraswati?
Answer:
Satyarth Prakash.

Question 2.
Ramakrishna Paramhansa was a priest of which famous temple?
Answer:
He was the priest of the Dakshineshwar temple.

Question 3.
When was Raja Ram Mohan Roy bom?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born on 22nd May, 1772.

Question 4.
What was the early name of Swami Vivekanand?
Answer:
The early name of Swami Vivekanand was Narendra Nath Dutt.

Question 5.
Who was Swami Dayanand Saraswati’s gum?
Answer:
Swami Dayanand Saraswati’s guru was Swami Virjanand.

Question 6.
What was the early name of Swami Dayanand Saraswati?
Answer:
Swami Dayanand Saraswati’s early name was Moolshankar.

Question 7.
Who established the Vedanta College in Calcutta?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy established the Vedanta College in Calcutta.

Question 8.
Which are the two divisions of the Brahmo Samaj?
Answer:
Two divisions of the Brahmo Samaj are:

  1. Adi Brahmo Samaj
  2. Bharatiya Brahmo Samaj.

Question 9.
Name the two personalities under whose leadership was the Arya Samaj split after Swami Dayanand Sarswati?
Answer:
The two personalities to lead the Arya Samaj after Swami Dayanand Saraswati were:

  1. Lala Hansraj
  2. Mahatma Munshi Ram.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What did Arya Samaj do to improve the condition of women?
Answer:
In order to improve the condition of women, the Arya Samaj condemned child marriage and pardah system and encouraged education and widow marriage. It said that women like men have the right to study the Vedas.

Question 2.
Write any three principles of Brahmo Samaj.
Answer:
Three principles of the Brahmo Samaj:

  1. God is one.
  2. Soul is immortal.
  3. Prayer is necessary for spritual elevation.

Question 3.
Which main custom condemned by Raja Ram Mohan Roy?
Answer:
Raja Ram Mohan Roy tried to prevent the Sati custom. He started a crusade against this evil practice and made Lord William Bentinck to make a law to stop this custom, and in 1829 it was made illegal.

Question 4.
Which social evils were condemned by Swami Dayanand Saraswati?
Answer:
Swami Dayanand Sarswati condemned child marriage, pardah pratha and caste system based on birth as well as idol worship, untouchability, religious superstitions and ancient orthodox beliefs.

Question 5.
Which incident made Swami Dayanand Saraswati to lose faith in idol-worship?
Answer:
When he was 14, he went to a Shiva temple along with his father on the occasion of Shivaratri festival. There he saw a mouse riding the idol of Shiva and eating the prasad. This incident made him lose faith in idol- worship.

Question 6.
Which social evils were bitterly criticised by Swami Vivekanand?
Answer:
He condemned conservatism, superstition, poverty, illiteracy, untouchability and vama distinctions based on birth.

Question 7.
At what places were Ramakrishna Mathas established by Swami Vivekanand?
Answer:
Swami Vivekanand established Ramakrishna Math in Taranagar in 1887 and another at Belur in 1897.

Question 8.
What was Swami Vivekanand’s main mission as he became the follower of Paramhansa?
Answer:
As Swami Vivekanand became the follower of Paramhansa, his name was changed from Narendra Nath Dutta to Swami Vivekanand. He, as a part of his mission, took up the tasks of presenting such a description of religion that may be acceptable to the people of new age, re-establishing the reverence of the Hindus towards Hindu religion and developing a feeling of self-dignity among Indians. Swamiji fulfilled his mission in his short span of 39 years.

Question 9.
Which two groups were born as a result of split in the Arya Samaj?
Answer:
After the death of Swami Dayanand the Arya Samaj was split into two groups:

  1. One group was headed by Lala Hansraj who favoured western education. Many schools and colleges were established at various places by his efforts and they are still running as DAV schools and colleges.
  2. The second group was headed by Mahatma Munshi Ram who was in favour of ancient system of education, so he established Gurukuls.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the prominent reform movements of the 19th century. Explain the factors responsible for the rise of social and religion reform movements.
Answer:
Prominent reform movements of the 19th century are:

  1. Brahmo Samaj
  2. Aiya Samaj
  3. Ramakrishna Mission
  4. Prathna Samaj in Maharashtra

Factors responsible for the reform movements:

  1. Energence of Evils in the Indian Society:
    Till the beginning of the 19th century, many evils had developed in’ the Indian society. Afraid of these social evils the people had started
    drifting away from the Hindu religion. The social and religious life of Indians had reached the peak of degradation and the whole country was feeling under the darkness of superstitions and conservatism.
  2. Propagation of Christianity:
    The Hindus realised that the Christian missionaries were propagating Christianity and if that was allowed to be continued, the existence of the Hindu society would be in danger.
  3. Spread of English Education and Literature:
    The progressive Indian intellectuals became familiar with the western literature and they were imbibed with the feeling of patriotism. Wilkinson, an European, translated Gita in 1785. Karl Brook published an authentic description of Vedas in 1805. Max Muller and Schelegal highlighted the gloiy of the Vedas and the upanishadas. These literary works developed in the Indians the spirit of reverence for their own culture as well as sense of self dignity.
  4. Renaissance in the 19th century:
    It sent a wave of fresh energy among Indians and motivated them to establish an advanced, progressive and glorious society.
  5. Birth and Rise of the prominent reformers in the 19th century:
    Prominent among these reformers were Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Ramakrishna Paranihansa and Swami Vivekanand. They brought to light the prevalent evils and superstitions in the Indian society. They gave a message to build a progressive, strong and glorious nation. They gave lead to the Hindu society to introduce reforms in the society and the religion.
    Thus, the above mentioned factors have been responsible for ameliorating evils prevailing in India.

Question 2.
Write an essay highlighting the reforms undertaken by Swami Dayanand Saraswati.
Answer:
Swami Dayanand Saraswati, the founder of the Aiya Samaj, shouldered the great responsibility of reforming society and religion. He devoted his whole life to the cause of removing evils of the Hindu society and religion. He had a great reverence for the ancient Indian religion, civilization and culture. He established a beautiful coordination of reformative and ancient trends in his ideas.

A famous thinker, Romain Rolland had said that Swamiji worked in India like the hero of Gita, Shri Krishna. He established Aiya Samaj in Bombay (Mumbai) on April 10, 1879 and made it a platform to give a practical shape to his reforms in the Hindu society. Swami Dayanand had criticised the caste system based on birth and was deadly opposed to idol worship, pilgrimage, untouchability, religious superstitions ancient orthodox beliefs. He condemned child marriage, purdah system and stressed on widow marriage and women education.

He was also for Swaraj. He was the first person to use the word Swaraj. His main aim was political freedom. He was a true nationalist. He was the first person to accept Hindi as a national language. He told that there may be any number of evils in Swaraj (self-rule), foreign rule may have any number of virtues, but Swaraj is better than foreign rule.
Thus, Swami Dayanand Saraswati introduced many social, religious, and political reforms in the society.

Question 3.
Describe the religious and social contributions of Swami Vivekanand by throwing light on his life history.
Answer:
Swami Vivekanand was born in a rich family in Calcutta in 1863. His real name was Narendra Nath Datta.
He was well-versed in wrestling, boxing, swimming, horse-riding, etc. He passed B.A with distinction. In his young age, he was influenced by western ideas like other educated Indian youths and suspected his own religion.

In order to understand his own religion he was attracted towards Brahma Samaj, but he was not at peace. In November, 1887 he met Ramakrishna Paramhansa at Dakshineshwar and all his doubts were cleared. He became follower of Paramhansa and his name was changed from Narendra Nath to Swami Vivekanand. His first mission was to make acceptable to the youths his own interpretation of religion. To re-establish reverence for the Hindu religion was his second mission and his third mission was to develop a feeling of self-dignity among Indians. He fulfilled all his three missions, in a short span of 39 years. The interpretation of his new religion was,“Dharma is the development of inherent godliness in man. Religion is neither in the books nor in religious principles. It is there only in feelings. It is an extremely natural element of life.”

In 1893 he attended the Chicago “Sarv Dharma Sammelan” and by his address he made the audience spell bound. A newspaper in New York had written about his address. “In this Parliament of religions, Vivekanand is the greatest person. After listening to his address, suddenly the question arises as how foolish it is to send religious preachers to such a knowledgeable country.” This is how Swami Vivekanand elevated the Hindu religion. He worked through the Ramakrishana Mathas for organising Ramakrishna Mission which however came into existence in 1909 after his death. This mission is now doing important tasks of preaching education, medical treatment and helping the victims of famines, floods, earthquakes and sufferers of communicable diseases.

Swami Vivekanand was in favour of education, revival of women status and economic progress. He condemned conservatism, superstition, poverty and illiteracy. He was against untouchability and did not agree to Varna distinctions based on birth. He worked for public welfare.
Besides he contributed towards building nationalism. He told, “Weakness is sin, it is death and fear is the greatest disease.” His most inspiring words for the Indians, “I along with my body is Indian, whole of India is my body. Himalaya is my head; east and west are my arms and by extending them, I embrace the brethern of my own country.”

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