RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 5 Main Events of the World

RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 5 Main Events of the World are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 5 Main Events of the World.

Board RBSE
Textbook SIERT, Rajasthan
Class Class 9
Subject Social Science
Chapter Chapter 5
Chapter Name Main Events of the World
Number of Questions Solved 62
Category RBSE Solutions

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 5 Main Events of the World


Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

Question 1.
Who was the King of France at the time of French Revolution?
(a) Louis XI
(b) Louis XVIII
(c) Louis XVI
(d) Louis XV

Question 2.
When was non-aggressiôn agreement done between Germany and Russia?
(a) 1939
(b) 1935
(c) 1936
(d) 1937

Question 3.
Which Treaty was made with Germany after the First World War?
(a) Treaty of Neuieli
(b) Treaty of Serbia
(c) Treaty of Versailles
(d) Treaty of Triyana

Question 4.
Who helped France in the civil war of Spain?
(a) America and Russia
(b) Germany and Italy
(c) Austria and Hungary
(d) Germany and Japan

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name two intellectuals of France who created mental awareness during French Revolution.
(a) Montesquieu
(b) Rousseau.

Question 2.
Who was the King of Germany at the time of the First World War?
William Kaiser

Question 3.
Name the main leader of Bolshevik revolution.

Question 4.
Which Naval Centre of America was attacked by Japan in the Second World War?
Pearl Harbour

Question 5.
Who formed government in Russia after March Revolution?

Question 6.
Who helped French in Spain war ?
Germany and Italy.

Question 7.
When was League of Nations established?
In 1920.

Question 8.
When is United Nation Organization Day celebrated?
24th October 1945

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What was Estate General?
It was the Third House which declared itself the National Assembly in which people of high class, priests and common class had their different representatives. With a vote of each house, first two houses exploited the majority class. It existed on the King’s will. After 1614, its meeting did not take place. After 125 years, on May 5, 1789, Louis XVI called its session.

Question 2.
What do you know about decline of Bastille ?
Bastille was an ancient fort of France which was changed into prison. On 5th May 1789, after 175 years on the advice of Finance Minister Briyan, a meeting of Estate general was called. King was requested to abolish inequality, exploitation, special rights and bonded labour Begar (work without wage). Members of Third House (common category) wanted to have combined meeting of all classes but except a few Popes of I and II House, nobody came. On June 17, 1789 the Third House declared the Estates General, as the National Assembly.
On 20 June when members of Third House came for the meeting, doors of the Assembly House was closed. Hence, meeting of the Assembly took place at the tennis court outside the building and took pledge that without drawing the Constitution of France, the Assembly would not be resolved. On 14th July, 1789 angry people attacked the Bastille Fort and released their leaders. This was the beginning of the revolution.

Question 3.
Name the Allied nations of the Second World War.
Britain, France, USA, China and Poland.

Question 4.
Write a short note on labour strike of Petrograd.
In 1917, conditions in the capital, Petrograd were grim. The layout of the city seemed to emphasise the division among its people. The workers quarters and factories were located on the right bank of the river Neva. On the left bank were the fashionable areas, the Winter Palace and official buildings, including the palace where the Duma met. In February 1917, food shortages were deeply felt in the workers quarters.
On 22 February, a lockout took place at a factory. The very next day, workers in about fifty factories called a strike in sympathy. In many factories, women led the way to strikes which came to be called the International Women’s Day. The government imposed a curfew. Finally, Czar had to leave the throne. All government buildings and offices were seized by Bolshevik army. Under the leadership of Lenin, dictatorship was established in Russia.

Question 5.
Why did Britain adopt the policy of appeasement?
Britain wanted to use Germany to control increasing communist impact. In view of trade development as Germany consumed Britain goods, so it showed sympathetic behaviour towards Germany. Hence, Britain took no action when Germany took control over Austria, division of Czechoslovakia, and militarization of Rhineland.

Question 6.
Give the immediate cause of the First World War.
On the issue of Bosnia and Harzegovina, Austria and Serbia were opponents. In such situation, two Serbians murdered Prince Ferdinand of Austria and her wife in capital of Bosnia Sarajevo publically, on 28 June 1914. On this issue, Austria attacked Serbia on 28 July 1914. Russia started war in support of Serbia. Germany also declared war against Russia. It was the beginning of the First World War.

Question 7.
Illustrate the failure of the Disarmament
The allied nations won in the First World War. These nations wanted to introduce disarmament policy towards defeated nations and did not adopt this policy themselves. The other nations understood it. So, there started a competition for armament in Germany and other nations, which became a danger for world peace.

Question 8.
Describe the objectives of UNO.
Objectives of UNO:

  1. To maintain international peace and security.
  2. To solve international disputes.
  3. To provide international cooperation in social, economic, cultural and humanitarian fields.
  4. To encourage friendly relations between nations for world peace.

Question 9.
Meaning: Give the meaning and objectives of Arab Spring (Vasant).
During 2010 and 2013, a revolutionary movement ran in Arab nations for democracy, fair election, human right, unemployment and for change in government. These movements were started in Arab nations for better prospects. The learned men termed them as Arab Spring.
Objectives: The main objective of Arab Spring was to bring change in the administration system, protection of rights, conduction of fair elections, etc.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give the causes and results of the French Revolution.

  1. Political causes:
    The king of France were autocratic and self-willed. They ignored the suffering of the people. They imposed new taxes on people and spent money on luxuries. Thus, the people were much distressed from them.
  2. Economic causes:
    Economic condition of France was very bad. Because of luxurious life of high class, the entire burden of taxation fell on the common people, and the taxes were collected mercilessly. People belonging to first and second class were exempt from paying taxes. Hence, pitiable condition of people became the cause of revolution.
  3. Social causes:
    Before French revolution, the clergy and the high class people were leading a luxurious life. They were privileged. On the other hand, common people ^ were living a miserable life. They were under heavy taxes. Thus, people of this third class supported the Revolution.
  4. Impact of American struggle of freedom:
    French soldiers went USA for army help. From there, they got the inspiration of patriotism, freedom and self-respect. Freedom struggle of USA gave birth to French Revolution.
  5. Emergence of middle class:
    Peasants and labourers had no power to oppose the high class. Middle class people-advocates, teachers, doctors, thinkers, etc. opposed them. They all wanted a reform in France.
  6. Intellectual awareness:
    Condition like in France pervaded in almost all the European countries. The revolutionary ideas of philosophers and writers became the first cause of the revolution. Their ideas sowed seeds of the revolution. Montesque, Voltaire, Rousseau, played an important role in the revolution.
  7. Religious Dissatisfaction:
    During the rule of Louis XVI, there were 1,25,000 clearg in France. This clergy was living luxurious life, while the poor people even had no food. Poor and hungry people did not approve the prosperity of church. Religious tax Tithe’ was collected forcefully. This increased dissatisfaction.
  8. Fall of Bastille:
    In 1789, an advocate Camille Desmoulins’ rousing speech incited the crowd in Paris. On 19 July, the rebels attacked Bastille. They broke open its gates and got released all the prisoners.
    They assassinated the security guards. This incident of 14 July 1789 started the French.


  1. End of feudalism as well as in other countries too. King, queen and their relatives were killed. End of autocratic and self-willed rule of Louis.
  2. Emergence of concept of secular state i.e. encouragement to religious tolerance. Efforts were made to end religious inequality.
  3. Encouragement to the feeling of liberty, equality and fraternity. Fundamental Rights were declared by the Assembly.
  4. It paved the path of socialism le. Laisse Faire.
  5. The people of high classes lost their position.
  6. Emergence of political parties.
  7. It gave equality in justice to rich as well as poor, special rights of rich were ended.

Question 2.
Describe the results of the First World War in brief.
There was a great loss of life and property. 6 crore soldiers took part in the war. About 1 crore 30 lac were killed, 2 crore 20 lac were injured, and a lot of property was destroyed. Approx 86 billion dollars were spent in the war.

  1. Autocratic regimes were established in Germany, Austria and Russia.
  2. Many changes took place after war through peaceful treaties. New nations were emerged as Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland, Poland, etc.
  3. Government based on different philosophies were established. Communist government in Russia, Nazism in Germany, Facism in Italy, etc.
  4. US gave economic support in war by providing large loans to Allied nations. In Paris Peace Summit, President of America Wilson played an important role. This war increased the impact of America.
  5. Women’s condition was improved as they played a major role in civil and medical field.
  6. The seed of the Second World War sown in the First World War as Treaty of Versailles * made Italy and Germany unsatisfied. They pushed the world into the Second World War.
  7. League of Nations was established by the efforts of US President Wilson to solve the problems of war countries. Though this institution did not get success in solving the problems.

Question 3.
Give the cause of Russian Revolution of 1917.
First revolution in Russia took place in March 2017 and second in Nov. 1917. The revolution of March 1917 ended the rule of Tsar and the revolution of November 1917 gave birth to democracy. This is also Içnown as “Bolshevik revolution”. Following were the main causes of the revolutions.

  1. Dictatorship of Czar:
    Russia’s Czar believed in divine rights of kings. The Parliament of Russia (Duma) had no power. Alexander III and Nicolas-II adopted a harsh and oppressive policy.
  2. Social Inequality:
    Russian society had two classes, one had all powers while other had no powers. On most of the land and rule of Russia were under the control of high class and relatives of Czar. Though low class people were more in number but they had no rights. It created an unrest among people.
  3. Discontent among Labour:
    Due to industrial revolution, many industries were established in Russia. It increased the number of workers continuously. Industrialists exploited the workers, and paid less wages. The government also supported the industrialists. Finally workers formed an organization and took support of strike. Revolt started with labour strikes. Workers wanted the rule of working class.
  4. Immediate cause:
    Continuous defeat of army in the First World War and problems that arose due to war made people tired. People demanded end of war, but administration was not in favour hence people revolted. The immediate cause of revolution was shortage of grain and bread.

Question 4.
Illustrate the causes and results of the Second World War.

  1. Treaty of Versailles:
    With this treaty, the victorious Allied nations fixed several restrictions, but people of Germany did not accept them. Later on, Adolf Hitler violated these restrictions, which caused the Second World War.
  2. Failure of UNO:
    UNO was formed to settle disputes and maintain peace among the countries, but the allied nations used UNO for their own profit. UNO proved to be incapable in taking action against dictators.
  3. Britain’s policy of appeasement:
    Britain wanted to use Germany to control increasing communist impact. In view of trade development Germany consumed British goods. Therefore, it showed sympathetic behaviour with Germany. Britain took no action when Germany occupied Austria, division of Czechoslovakia, and militarization of Rhineland.
  4. Impact of aggressive nationalism:
    After war, aggressive feeling of nationalism and militarism was the main cause of the Second World War. It arose more in Italy, Germany and Japan. Even LoN failed to control the situation. It created the possibilities of war.
  5. Development of dictatorship:
    After the First World War, democracy could not establish in defeated countries. Dictatorship developed in Germany, Italy and Japan. These countries were violating Versailles Treaty and Berlin, Rome and Tokyo combined to form Axis powers. Against this, the Allied nations made their own group.
  6. Lack of co-ordination among allied nations:
    There were absence of harmony between allied nations. Unitedly they couldn’t take any action against Germany, Japan and Italy. It encouraged Germany which converted into a danger for world.
  7. Failure of Disarmament policy:
    Allied nations wanted to impose disarmament policy for defeated nations but did not follow it themselves. Other nations had understood it. Hence a competition of armament was started in Germany and other nations. It became the danger to world peace.
  8. Economic crises or recession:
    The economic crises of 1929-30 affected the economy of all European nations. It destroyed the feeling of security and emergence of dictators occurred. It encouraged war.
  9. Immediate Causes:
    After usurping Czechoslovakia, Germany attacked Poland. Britain and France declared war against Germany and thus Second World War began.

There was a great loss of life and property. About 6 crore people were killed.

  1. Expenditure reached billions of dollars.
  2. Atom bombs were used in the war which proved to be very destructive.
  3. After war, the world was divided into two parts—communists and capitalists.
  4. The allied countries divided Germany into two parts to make it weak.
  5. Armed groups were formed all over the world.
  6. After the Second World War, many countries got freedom, which were earlier the colonies of European nations.
  7. UNO was formed on 24th Oct. 1945.
  8. War Crime Commission was established to discuss over issues associated with war prisoners.
  9. Two super powers USA and USSR came into existence.
  10. Imperialism became weak.
  11. Position of Europe became weak.

Question 5.
Give the causes of Colonial Imperialism.
Causes of Imperialistic expansion by western nations:

  1. The fulfilment of economic hunger of the western nations was the main cause.
  2. After Industrial Revolution, industrial production was increased in England, France, Germany, Italy and USA.
    New places were required to sell their goods.
  3. European nations tried to control over places which were rich in natural resources to fulfil their demand of raw materials.
  4. Capital was accumulated in European nations, investment of this wealth required new places.
  5. Communication and transport facilities supported the imperial expansion.
  6. Population was increasing in these nations so new places were required.
  7. Christian missionaries played a crucial role in expansion of imperialist power. In South Asian countries- India, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives, etc. became the victim of western imperialistic expansion. In India there was a trade competition, among British, French and Dutch East India Companies.
    After mutual struggle, British East India company through Battle of Plassey 1757, military success at Buxur 1764, defeat of Maratha confederacy in 1818, got success to establish their rule and expand imperial power in India. Britishers also held control over Sri Lanka, which became independent in 1948. England, Holland and France had their control on Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, Nalaya, Timor, which are south-east Asian nations.
  8. England and France had their control over South Africa mainly. English people here also adopted their Apartheid policy (colour prejudice). Blacks were exploited and atrocities were made on them. Here slavery system prevailed and western people were involved in slave trade.

Question 6.
Describe the establishment of UNO and its main organs.
After the Second World War, UNO was established on 24 Oct. 1945:
Organs of UNO: It has six organs-

  1. General Assembly
  2. Security Council
  3. Economic and Social Council
  4. Trusteeship Council
  5. International Court
  6. Secretariat.

1. General Assembly:
It is the main body of UNO which consists of one President and seven Vice Presidents. It has six organs. Its conference is held once in a year in the second week of September, to pass budget, entry of member states and discussion over termination of membership.

  1. Passing of Budget.
  2. Membership to member nations, their dismissal, co-operation for human welfare are main functions.

2. Security Council:
It is the executive body of UNO. It has 15 members- 5 permanent for 2 years in rotation and 10 temporaiy. USA, Britain, Russia, France and China are its permanent members. Temporary members are elected by 2/3 majority by General Assembly. This institution works continuously. Its meeting is called once in 14 days. The election of the President of this council is done according to the recommendation of the member nations.
3. Economic and Social Council:
It members (54 at present) are elected for three years. Its meeting is called twice a year for maintaining peace and friendship among different nations. It forms different committees to provide for fundamental and equal rights.
4. International Court:
It was establishment on 3 April, 1946 in Hague, a city of South Holland. It has 15 judges. Its judges are selected by Security Council and General Assembly. It appoints its President and other staff. Cases related with international law are presented here. The judgement of this council is final.
5. Trusteeship Council:
Under this part of UNO, undeveloped and backward states are handed over to developed countries as a heritage. The objective of this council is to improve such countries socially, economically, politically.
6. Secretariat:
It is an administrative organ of UNO. Its headquarter is in New York. Secretary General is the main officer of the Council who is elected by General Assembly on the recommendation of Security Council. He is elected for five years. The main work of Secretary General is to present annual report, selection of staff, performing different tasks of the organization. U. Thant, Hammerskjold, K.
Waldheim, Boutros Ghali, Kofi Annan and Ban Ki Moon had got the honour of presiding over this post.

Question 7.
Describe in brief the causes and results of Arab Spring.
Arab Spring-(2010-13): This movement was started by people (for bringing good day’s) for Arab Countries. Hence, it is called as Arab Spring. This movement was started with revolt of Tunisia and very fastly spread in nations of Arab League. The main nations in which Arab Spring spread in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain, Syria, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, Sudan, Oman, Saudi Arab, etc.
Causes of Arab Spring

  1. In Arab nations, corruption was at its peak, sd for country’s development it was essential to abolish it.
  2. System was opposed due to poor of human rights and exploitation.
  3. Emergence of feeling of discontent against dictators.
  4. Imperialistic feelings of rulers also gave birth to discontent.
  5. Discontent arose among youth due to increase in unemployment in Arab nations.
  6. A huge gap between rich class and poor class due to difference in income level.
  7. Bureaucrats had dominance in administration. They neglected welfare of common people. It gave birth to feeling of unrest.
  8. Encouragement to feelings of establishing democratic system.

Objectives of Arab Spring

  1. The main objective was to bring change in administrative system and government.
  2. Security of human rights, fair election system, eradication of unemployment and Islamization were other objectives.
  3. Revolutionaries adopted different methods like civil disobedience, demonstration, picketing, strikes, violent demonstration, etc.

Consequences of Arab Spring:
Through the medium of Arab Spring a wave of democracy and reforms took place in Arab nation. It attracted whole world notice. At long last dictatorship was ended, like

  1. Government of Jenual Abdin Ali of Tunisia, Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, Col. Gaddafi of Libya, Shah Ali Abddula of Yemen were overthrown and new governments were formed in those nations.
  2. Government of Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman and Bahrain carried out many reforms by watching the great opposition of Arab Spring.
  3. In Morocco and Jordan, constitutional reforms were adopted.
  4. In Algeria, 19-year old emergency was removed.
  5. 1,70,00 people lost their lives. It proved that now people cannot tolerate dictatorship any more.
  6. It attracted world towards demonstrators.
  7. Some of the demonstrators were nominated for nobel prize. Tavcol of Yemen and Karman were combinedly given the Nobel prize in 2011 for organizing peaceful agitation. Due to impact of Arab Spring, rulers were denied to refight election and some resigned.


Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

Question 1.
When was the East India Company established?
(a) 1600
(b) 1602
(c) 1623
(d) 1624

Question 2.
Lenin was related to which revolution?
(a) Russian Revolution
(b) American Revolution
(c) Revolution of France
(d) Nazi Revolution

Question 3.
International Court of Justice is situated-
(c) in New York
(b) in Hague
(c) in Geneva
(d) in Paris

Question 4.
When did the French revolution take place?
(a) In 1688 AD
(b) In 1789 AD
(c) In 1889 AD
(d) In 1769 AD

Question 5.
‘History of Louis XIV’ is the famous book written by
(a) Marconi
(b) Voltaire
(c) Rousseau
(d) John Ruskin

Question 6.
Who said- “Had Rousseau not been bom, the revolution of France would have been impossible”?
(a) Bismarck
(b) Hitler
(c) Napoleon
(d) Mazzini

Question 7.
Which countries emerged as the Axis nations?
(a) Japan, Austria and Italy
(b) Turkey, Italy and Japan
(c) Germany, Italy and Japan
(d) Russia, Britain and America

Question 8.
Kerensky fled from Russia on
(a) 7th, Nov, 1917
(b) 10th Nov, 1917
(c) 7th March, 1917
(d) 10th March, 1917

Question 9.
Slogan of ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ is associated with the
(a) Russian Revolution
(b) French Revolution
(c) American Revolution
(d) All of the above

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When and why did the British come to India?
The British came to India in 1600 to trade with India.

Question 2.
Who was Vasco de Gama? When did he come to India?
Vasco de Gama was a sailor of Portugal. He came to India in 1498.

Question 3.
What do you mean by Bolshevik revolution of Soviet Russia?
Bolshevik Revolution of Soviet Russia was launched by the revolutionaries on the night of Nov. 6, 1917.

Question 4.
Who were the three members of the Axis nations in the Second World War?
Germany, Italy and Japan were the three members of the Axis nations.

Question 5.
Why is the year 1960 known as the African year in the history of Africa?
In 1960, 17 countries of Africa got freedom, hence it is known as the African year.

Question 6.
In which two Summits was the UNO charter finally accepted and by how many countries?

  1. UNO charter was accepted finally in the Moscow Summit and the Malta Summit.
  2. It was accepted by 55 countries.

Question 7.
Write the full forms of UNICEF and UNESCO.
UNICEF: United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund. UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation.

Question 8.
Which two treaties regarding disarma¬ment have got approval by most of the countries?
Two treaties of disarmament which have been approved by most of the countries are:

  1. CTBT- Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.
  2. NPT- Non-Proliferation Treaty

Question 9.
Which agency of UNO helps to improve the condition of the labourers in the world? Where is its headquarter?

  1. International Labour Organisation helps to improve the condition of the labourers in the world.
  2. Its headquarter is at Geneva.

Question 10.
Who said, “A chair became vacant in every hut of England”? Which event do these words refer to?
Winston Churchill uttered these words regarding the loss of lives during the First World War.

Question 11.
Write down the reasons for the failure of League of Nations.
Weak constitution, poor economic status and lack of American membership of League of Nations.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How did the prophecy of Marshall Fock come true regarding the Versailles treaty?
Treaty of Versailles signed after the First World War had made the people believe that the danger of the Second World War was averted and the past will not be repeated. But Marshall Fock had prophesised that this is not a peace treaty, but a cease-fire treaty for 20 years and it came out to be true with the break out of the Second World War with the worst consequences. Thus, the seeds of the Second World War were sown in the Treaty of Versailles.

Question 2.
What is the difference between the two revolutions of 1917 in Russia?
There were two revolutions- in Russia, in March 1917 and in November 1917. The revolution of March 1917, put an end to the autocratic rule of Czars in Russia and the public formed a temporary government and Kerensky was made the Prime- Minister. The November revolution i.e. the Bolshevik revolution led to the emergence of ‘Farmer, Worker Republic’. Because of the loopholes and inefficiency of Kerensky government, the revolutionary leader, Lenin, decided to capture power by an armed revolution. On Nov. 7, 1917 Kerensky fled from Russia and the Bolesheviks had the control over the « Russian capital.

Question 3.
What role did Rousseau play in awakening the people of France?
Rousseau was one of the intellectuals who played a significant role in the state revolution of France. He brought to light the prevalent inequalities and repression in society. His contention was, “No man in the state should be rich enough to purchase the other and no one should be too poor to feel
compelled to sell himself’. Napoleon had even said that ‘Had Rousseau not been born, the revolution of France would have been impossible’.

Question 4.
How did the Second World War come to an end?
There emerged two rival camps in the world, i.e., the Axis nations and the Allies camp. In the beginning of the war, Axis nations got many successes. After getting hold on the eastern part of Asia, they attacked Pearl Harbour in Dec. 1941. It was the Naval Centre of America. Angered by this attack, America too jumped into the war. After this, the Allies started a big fight. Their forces got France freed from Hitler. Italy surrendered itself. In May 1945, Berlin was defeated. In August 1945, Japan too was defeated- when America dropped atom bombs on its Nagasaki and Hiroshima cities.

Question 5.
Write any four consequences of the French Revolution.

  1. King, queen and their supporters were put to death.
  2. Emergence and development of political parties
  3. Revolution gave birth to the spirit of freedom, equality and brotherhood- Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
  4. Revolution put an end to religious inequality.

Question 6.
Discuss the main results of the French Revolution.
Not only in France but in the whole world this revolution has a special place. According to Hazon, French Revolution gave birth to a new concept. This revolt influenced most of the events of the world.
Its main results were:

  1. End of feudalism as well as in other countries too. King, Queen and their relatives were killed. End of autocratic and self-willed rule of Louis-XVI.
  2. Emergence of concept of secular state, i.e. encouragement to religious tolerance. Efforts were made to end religious inequality.
  3. Encouragement to the feeling of liberty, equality and fraternity. Fundamental Rights were declared by the Assembly.
  4. It paved the path of socialism, i.e. Laisse Faire.
  5. It reduced the prestige of higher class.
  6. Emergence of political parties.
  7. It gave equality before law to rich as well as poor, special rights of rich were ended.

Question 7.
What was the consequence of March 8, 1917 revolution in Russia?
March Revolution in Russia put an end to the autocratic rule of Czars in Russia and the public formed a temporary government and Kerensky was made the Prime Minister.

Question 8.
Which imperialist powers established their companies in India with an intention to exploit the Indian wealth?
In 1600, East India Company of England was established. Two years later, i.e. in 1662 Holland established Dutch East India Company. In 1664, the French East India Company was established and then Denmark East India Company was established. All these became rivals to exploit the Indian wealth.

Question 9.
What was Voltaire’s role in the French Revolution?
Voltaire weakened the prevalent faith of the people in the church. He encouraged the people of France to fight against cruelty, injustice and blind faith. His famous book is ‘History of Louis-XIV’.

Question 10.
Describe the characteristics of the First World War.
In this war, one side was Axis nations while, on the other side Allied nations. In Allied nations, England, France, Russia, Japan, America, Italy, Serbia, Portugal, Rumania, China, Australia, Canada, and South Africa were included. Among Axis powers Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria were included. In the beginning years of the war, Axis power won. Then Russia separated from war by the Treaty of Brest Litorsk in March 1918. With the victory of Allied nations war was ended on 11th November 1918. After war, peace summit was held in Paris and different treaties were made with different nations. Treaty of Versailles was signed with Germany.

Question 11.
Describe the characteristics of the Second World War.
In the Second World War, on one side there were Germany, Italy, Japan, Finland, Rumania and Hungiy while on other side were Allied nations- Britain, France, USA, China, Poland and their colonies. In the beginning Axis power (nations) got success. In December 1941, Japan attacked on Naval centre of America’s Pearl Harbour. Because of this, America also joined the war. After it, Allied nations started getting success. American army made France free from Hitler. Italy also surrendered. In 1945, Germany also declined. On 6th Aug., 1945 America dropped bombs on Hiroshima, and on 9th August 1945 over Nagasaki. Due to fear of this destruction, Japan sent a resolution of surrender. At the end, on 14th August 1945 the war was over.

Question 12.
Write about the objectives and organs ofLoN.
Objectives of League of Nations:

  1. Solving mutual problems and arrangement of security.
  2. To give encouragement to physical and mental co-operation to all nations.
  3. To fulfil all duties made responsible by the Paris Peace Treaty.

Organs of LoN
There were three main organs of LoN-

  1. Assembly
  2. Council
  3. Secretariat.

Beside this it had two Autonomous organs:

  1. International Court
  2. International Labour Organization Though objectives of the establishment of LoN were good for world community, but due to non-cooperation of supreme powers and their self-willed activities, it remained an informal organization. It did not get success in its mission.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What were the main causes of the First World War?
Causes of the First World War

  1. Diplomatic Treaties and formation of two groups:
    Bismark of Germany entered into diplomatic treaties with the European countries and Italy with England and France.
  2. Division of Europe into two opposite camps:
    Dual Alliance treaty of Germany with Austria in 1870, with Italy joining in 1882, Triple Alliance was formed. France, Russia and Britain too made the Triple Entente.
  3. Armament and Spirit of Militarism:
    In the later decades of 19th century, most of the European nations gave encouragement to armament and militarism. On the basis of military force, Germany defeated Austria. Hence, France, Russia and England also started to increase their military power. In such condition, war had to take place.
  4. Impact of socialism:
    Ambition of becoming prosperous increased in European nations after the Industrial
    Revolution. They stated establishing their colonies to get raw materials and sale of finished goods. It gave impetus to socialism. England, France Germany, Italy, etc. expanded their empire by controlling own nations of Canada, Australia, India, Africa and Asia. Imperialistic competition created situation of struggle in European countries.
  5. Impact of newspapers:
    News given in newspapers like-“Russia is ready, hence, France should be ready”. Such articles created the negative environment like fierce feeling of nationalism in Europe. Every nation was ready to destroy other nations for the development, expansion, respect and glory.
  6. Ambition of William Kaiser-II:
    The king of Germany, W. Kaiser-II, wanted to make Germany a world power. He built Berlin-Baghdad Railway line with agreement with Turkey. On the issue of Naval development, he annoyed England. He expressed his views that expansion of sea is the greatness of Germany.
  7. Lack of International Institution:
    There was no such institution that time which could sort out the conflicts among European nations and take them away from war. Such institutions developed after the First World War.
  8. Impact of Balkan wars and International crisis:
    Due to 20th century International events, nations of the world became hostile to each other and divided into two military powers or groups. Crisis of 1904- OS AD, Russia-Japan war, crisis of Morocco and Agadeer, control of Austria over Bosnia and Herzegovina and Balkan wars (1912-13 AD) were such crisis.

Question 2.
What were the crisis that came before UNO? Explain in detail.
The crisis faced by UNO were:

  1. Korean War:
    In 1950, a war broke out between the North and the South Korea. UNO made many attempts to stop this war. It was with the efforts of UNO that cease-fire was declared in 1953 between the two parts of Korea.
  2. Suez Crisis:
    In 1956 the British, the French and the Israel forces invaded Egypt and stationed their combined forces on the Suez canal. The UNO forces helped in the withdrawal of the combined force thus established peace.
  3. Congo Crisis:
    In 1960, there was civil war in Congo. Belgium instigated the Congo province to withdraw from the Congo Union. UNO sent its peace forces to establish normalcy there.
  4. Somalia Crisis:
    In 1991, Somalia in the African continent, was put under military rule and President Mohammad Sayyed was dismissed. There was famine and as a result the economic condition deteriorated. UNO sent food grains, medicines and armed forces.

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