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Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 6 English Grammar Indirect Speech
वक्ता के कहे हुए शब्दों को प्रकट करना Narration कहलाता है। Narration दो प्रकार का होता है :Direct Narration और Indirect Narration.
Direct Narration में वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों व्यक्त किया जाता है। जैसेHe said, “I am going to Mumbai.”
उपर्युक्त वाक्य में वक्ता He है और He के कहे हुए शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों Inverted commas (“”) में लिखा गया है। Direct Narration को Direct Speech भी कहते हैं । Indirect Narration में वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों न कहकर उसका भाव प्रकट किया जाता है। जैसे –
He said that he was going to Mumbai.
इस वाक्य में I को he में तथा am को was में बदलकर लिखा गया है। इस प्रकार Direct Narration को Indirect Narration में बदल दिया गया है।
Direct Narration के दो भाग होते हैं :
(i) Reporting verb.
(ii) Reported Speech.
Inverted Commas के बाहर के भाग को Reporting Verb तथा Inverted Commas के अन्दर वाले भाग को Reported Speech कहते हैं।
उपर्युक्त वाक्य में ‘said’ ReportingVerb है तथा “I am going to Mumbai.” Reported Speech है।
Direct से Indirect में बदलने के सामान्य नियम
- Indirect Speech में Inverted Commas “…… का प्रयोग नहीं होता है।
- ReportingVerb के बाद Comma (,) का प्रयोग नहीं होता है।
- Reporting Verb का tense कभी नहीं बदलता । यदि ReportingVerb के बाद कोई Object(कर्म) आया हो तो said to को told में बदल देते हैं। परन्तु told के साथ to का प्रयोग नहीं करते हैं । यदि said के बाद कोई Object (कर्म) न हो तो said का said ही रहता है ।।
- Reporting Verb के पश्चात् आवश्यकतानुसार उचित Conjunction जैसे that, if या whether लगाते हैं । कभी- कभी Conjunction लगाने की आवश्यकता नहीं पड़ती ।।
1. Tenses में परिवर्तन सम्बन्धी नियम
(Rules for the Change of Tenses)
नियम 1. यदि Reporting Verb, Present (वर्तमान काल) अथवा Future (भविष्य) Tense में हो तो Reported Speech के verb के Tense में किसी प्रकार का परिवर्तन नहीं करते हैं। जैसे – Direct – Ram says, “Hari is not well.”
Indirect- Ram says that Hari is not well.”
Direct- He will say, “Asha is very intelligent.”
Indirect- He will say that Asha is very intelligent.”
नियम 2. यदि Reporting Verb, Past Tense भूतकाल Reported Speech के Tense में परिवर्तन निम्न प्रकार किया जाता है।
(a) Simple Present Tense at age of Simple Past Tense किया जाता है। जैसे –
Direct – Mohan said, “Rakesh tells a lie.”
Indirect – Mohan said that Rakesh told a lie.
Direct – He said, “Ram eats a mango.”
Indirect – He said that Ram ate a mango.
(b) Present Continuous को Past Continuous में बदल देते है जैसे –
is/am are — was/were
Direct – Sohan said to me, “Ram is writing a book.”
Indirect – Sohan told me that Ram was writing a book.
(c) Present Perfect Tense को Past Perfect Tense में बदल देते है जैसे –
has/have – had
Direct – Sohan said, “Sandhya has completed her work.”
Indirect. Sohan said that Sandhya had completed her work.
(d) Present Perfect Continuous को Past Perfect Continuous Tense में बदल देते है जैसे –
has/have +been + Verb ing form, had been + Verb at ing form.
Direct – He said, “It has been raining since morning.”
Indirect. He said that it had been raining since morning.
(e) Simple Past Tense को Past Perfect Tense को बदल देते है जैसे –
Direct – He said, “The horse died in the night.”
Indirect – He said that the horse had died in the night.
(f) Past Continuous Tense को Past Perfect Continuous Tense में बदल देते है जैसे –
was/were + Verb में ing form- had been + Verb ——-? ing form
Direct- He said, “The students were learning their lessons.”
Indirect – He said that the students had been learning their lessons.
(g) Past Perfect Tense को Past Perfect Continuous Tense में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होती है जैसे
Direct – They said, “Usha had won the match.”
Indirect – They said that Usha had won the match.
Direct- She said, “Asha had been reading for two hours.”
Indirect – She said that Asha had been reading for two hours.
(h) यदि ReportingVerb भूतकाल (Past Tense) में हो तो Reported Speech में आने वाले shall/will को that clause के subject के अनुसार should अथवा would में बदल देते हैं जैसे
Direct – I said, “I shall play.”
Indirect – I said that I should play.
Direct – Anshu said, “Radha will see the picture.”
Indirect – Anshu said that Radha would see the picture.
(i) यदि ReportingVerb भूतकाल (Past Tense) में हो तो Reported Speech में आने वाले ‘can’ को ‘could’ में तथा ‘may’ को ‘might’ में बदल देते हैं। परन्तु ‘must’, ‘ought’, ‘could’,’would’, ‘might’, तथा ‘used to’ में परिवर्तन नहीं होती है जैसे
Direct – I said, “I can jump into the river.”
Indirect – I said that I could jump into the river.
Direct – He said, “The boy may go.”
Indirect – He said that the boy might go.
Direct – The teacher said, “Ram must take part in games.”
Indirect – The teacher said that Ram must take part in games.
Direct – He said to me, “We should respect our elders.” ,
Indirect – He told me that we should respect our elders.
Direct – I said, “My teacher used to take class regularly”.
Indirect – I said that my teacher used to take class regularly.
Direct – The police officer said, “Everyone ought to obey the rules of the road.”
Indirect – The police officer said that everyone ought to obey the rules of the road.
Tense सम्बन्धी नियम के अपवाद
निम्नलिखित दशाओं में ReportingVerb के Past tense में होते हुए भी Reported Speech को Tense नहीं बदलता है
(1) जब सदा सत्य रहने वाली बात (Universal truth) कहा जाये जैसे
Direct – The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”
Indirect – The teacher said that the earth moves round the sun.
Direct. He said. “The sun rises in the east.”
Indirect – He said that the sun rises in the east.
(2) जब कोई आदत सम्बन्धी तथ्य (habitual fact) कहा जाये जैसे
Direct – Hari said to Ravi, “Dogs bark at strangers.”
Indirect – Hari told Ravi that dogs bark at strangers.
(3) जब कोई कहावत (Proverb) कही जाये; जैसे –
Direct- He said, “Honesty is the best policy.”
Indirect – He said that honesty is the best policy.
(4) जब किसी ऐतिहासिक घटना (Historical fact) का जिक्र हो; जैसे –
Direct – The history teacher said, “Samudra Gupta is called the Napoleon of India”.
Indirect – The history teacher said that Samudra Gupta is called the Napoleon of India.
(i) Direct – He says, “Sita is ill.”
Indirect – He says that Sita is ill.
(ii) Direct – Hari will say, “Ramesh has gone.”
Indirect – Hari will say that Ramesh has gone.
(iii) Direct – The servant said, “It is raining.” ·
Indirect – The servant said that it was raining.
(iv)Direct – He said, “Hari went in the morning.”
Indirect – He said that Hari had gone in the morning.
(v) Direct – The teacher said to the boys, “God is present everywhere.”
Indirect – The teacher told the boys that God is present everywhere.
Study the above examples and change the following sentences into Indirect Speech :
ऊपर दिये उदाहरणों को ध्यान से देखिये और निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को indirect speech में बदलिये :
- Ram says, “Mohan is a naughty boy.”
- Gopal will say, “Hari is a good player.”
- He said, “The horse died in the night.”
- His sister said, “Mohan likes to swim in the river.”
- Mahesh said, “Mira is reading a book.”
- She said, “Raju can read Sanskrit.”
- The clerk said to the Principal,”Mr Gupta has been ill for the last two days.”
- Pratibha will say, “Ram writes a letter.”
- Mr Sinha said, “Water boils at 100°C.”
- My father said, “Honesty is the best policy.”
- Ram says that Mohan is a naughty boy.
- Gopal will say that Hari is a good player.
- He said that the horse had died in the night.
- His sister said that Mohan liked to swim in the river.
- Mahesh said that Meera was reading a book.
- She said that Raju could read Sanskrit.
- The clerk told the Principal that Mr Gupta had been ill for the last two days.
- Pratibha will say that Ram writes a letter.
- Mr Sinha said that water boils at 100°C.
- My father said that honesty is the best policy.
Change the following sentences into Indirect speech.
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को Indirect Speech में बदलिये।
- Gopal said to Renu, “Gita is writing a letter.”
- Raju said to his teacher, “Students are preparing for the examination.”
- Mother said to me, “Gopi is washing her clothes.”
- Meena said to Geeta, “Rani is not going to school on his bicycle.”
- Raju said to Abha, “She is watching TV.”
- Ram said to Gopal, “Munni is not playing in the garden.”
- Manoj said to Nita, “Mother is making tea in the kitchen.”
- Vinu said to his friends, “I am playing chess with his brother.”
- Rekha said to Neelam, “Someone is knocking at the door.”
- Mohit said to Maya, “Hari is playing well.”
- Gopal told Renu that Gita was writing a letter.
- Raju told his teacher that students were preparing for the examination.
- Mother told me that Gopi was washing her clothes.
- Meena told Geeta that Rani was not going to school.
- Raju told Abha that she was watching TV.
- Ram told Gopal that Munni was not playing in the garden.
- Manoj told Nita that mother was making tea in the kitchen.
- Vinu told his friends that he was playing chess with his brother.
- Rekha told Neelam that someone was knocking at the door.
- Mohit told Maya that Hari was playing well.
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